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Cappelle-en-Pévèle, France

Buerstmayr M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Matiasch L.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Mascher F.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil Research Station ACW | Vida G.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2014

Key message We detected several, most likely novel QTL for adult plant resistance to rusts. Notably three QTL improved resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust simultaneously indicating broad spectrum resistance QTL. Abstract The rusts of wheat (Puccinia spp.) are destructive fungal wheat diseases. The deployment of resistant cultivars plays a central role in integrated rust disease management. Durability of resistance would be preferred, but is difficult to analyse. The Austrian winter wheat cultivar Capo was released in the 1989 and grown on a large acreage during more than two decades and maintained a good level of quantitative leaf rust and stripe rust resistance. Two bi-parental mapping populations: Capo × Arina and Capo × Furore were tested in multiple environments for severity of leaf rust and stripe rust at the adult plant stage in replicated field experiments. Quantitative trait loci associated with leaf rust and stripe rust severity were mapped using DArT and SSR markers. Five QTL were detected in multiple environments associated with resistance to leaf rust designated as QLr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-2BS, QLr.ifa-3BS, and QLr.ifa-5BL, and five for resistance to stripe rust QYr.ifa-2AL, QYr.ifa-2BL, QYr.ifa-3AS, QYr.ifa-3BS, and QYr.ifa-5A. For all QTL apart from two (QYr.ifa-3AS, QLr.ifa-5BL) Capo contributed the resistance improving allele. The leaf rust and stripe rust resistance QTL on 2AL, 2BL and 3BS mapped to the same chromosome positions, indicating either closely linked genes or pleiotropic gene action. These three multiple disease resistance QTL (QLr.ifa-2AL/QYr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa.2BL/QYr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-3BS/QYr.ifa.3BS) potentially contribute novel resistance sources for stripe rust and leaf rust. The long-lasting resistance of Capo apparently rests upon a combination of several genes. The described germplasm, QTL and markers are applicable for simultaneous resistance improvement against leaf rust and stripe rust. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

Tabib Ghaffary S.M.,Plant Research International | Robert O.,Bioplante | Laurent V.,Bioplante | Lonnet P.,Florimond Desprez | And 4 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

The ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola is the causal agent of septoria tritici blotch (STB), one of the most destructive foliar diseases of bread and durum wheat globally, particularly in temperate humid areas. A screening of the French bread wheat cultivars Apache and Balance with 30 M. graminicola isolates revealed a pattern of resistant responses that suggested the presence of new genes for STB resistance. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of a doubled haploid (DH) population with five M. graminicola isolates in the seedling stage identified four QTLs on chromosomes 3AS, 1BS, 6DS and 7DS, and occasionally on 7DL. The QTL on chromosome 6DS flanked by SSR markers Xgpw5176 and Xgpw3087 is a novel QTL that now can be designated as Stb18. The QTLs on chromosomes 3AS and 1BS most likely represent Stb6 and Stb11, respectively, and the QTLs on chromosome 7DS are most probably identical with Stb4 and Stb5. However, the QTL identified on chromosome 7DL is expected to be a new Stb gene that still needs further characterization. Multiple isolates were used and show that not all isolates identify all QTLs, which clearly demonstrates the specificity in the M. graminicola-wheat pathosystem. QTL analyses were performed with various disease parameters. The development of asexual fructifications (pycnidia) in the characteristic necrotic blotches of STB, designated as parameter P, identified the maximum number of QTLs. All other parameters identified fewer but not different QTLs. The segregation of multiple QTLs in the Apache/Balance DH population enabled the identification of DH lines with single QTLs and multiple QTL combinations. Analyses of the marker data of these DH lines clearly demonstrated the positive effect of pyramiding QTLs to broaden resistance spectra as well as epistatic and additive interactions between these QTLs. Phenotyping of the Apache/Balance DH population in the field confirmed the presence of the QTLs that were identified in the seedling stage, but Stb18 was inconsistently expressed and might be particularly effective in young plants. In contrast, an additional QTL for STB resistance was identified on chromosome 2DS that is exclusively and consistently expressed in mature plants over locations and time, but it was also strongly related with earliness, tallness as well as resistance to Fusarium head blight. Although to date no Stb gene has been reported on chromosome 2D, the data provide evidence that this QTL is only indirectly related to STB resistance. This study shows that detailed genetic analysis of contemporary commercial bread wheat cultivars can unveil novel Stb genes that can be readily applied in marker-assisted breeding programs. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

Goudemand E.,Bioplante | Laurent V.,Bioplante | Duchalais L.,Bioplante | Tabib Ghaffary S.M.,Plant Research International | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2013

Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola, is one of the most ubiquitous and important diseases of bread wheat worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify markers linked to loci conferring resistance to STB from seven biparental populations. Linkage analysis, meta-analysis and association mapping were combined to identify robust quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance. Linkage analysis led to the detection of 115 QTLs for resistance to STB and 66 QTLs linked to plant height and/or earliness. Meta-analysis clustered these 115 QTLs into 27 Meta-QTLs (MQTLs) of pathogen resistance, of which 14 were found to be linked to plant height and/or earliness. Both the relationship between dwarfing and susceptibility to STB and the significant negative correlation between earliness and STB symptoms were confirmed. Eleven loci were linked to STB resistance by association mapping using a general linear model and/or a mixed linear model, of which eight co-located with STB MQTLs and two co-located with individual QTLs. Associated markers located in MQTL regions enhanced the relevance of the results and validated the potential of an association mapping approach. With several biparental populations, meta-analysis is the most relevant form of genetic analysis study, but association mapping can be used as a validation method. Regions linked to resistance in both methods should be relevant for use in breeding programs for improving resistance to STB in wheat varieties. The main interest in comparing both approaches is to detect robust loci that will be functional in many genetic backgrounds rather than just in one or a few specific backgrounds. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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