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Ballvora A.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Ballvora A.,University of Bonn | Flath K.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Lubeck J.,SaKa Pflanzenzucht GmbH and Co. KG | And 4 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

The obligate biotrophic, soil-borne fungus Synchytrium endobioticum causes wart disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum), which is a serious problem for crop production in countries with moderate climates. S. endobioticum induces hypertrophic cell divisions in plant host tissues leading to the formation of tumor-like structures. Potato wart is a quarantine disease and chemical control is not possible. From 38 S. endobioticum pathotypes occurring in Europe, pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18 are the most relevant. Genetic resistance to wart is available but only few current potato varieties are resistant to all four pathotypes. The phenotypic evaluation of wart resistance is laborious, time-consuming and sometimes ambiguous, which makes breeding for resistance difficult. Molecular markers diagnostic for genes for resistance to S. endobioticum pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18 would greatly facilitate the selection of new, resistant cultivars. Two tetraploid half-sib families (266 individuals) segregating for resistance to S. endobioticum pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18 were produced by crossing a resistant genotype with two different susceptible ones. The families were scored for five different wart resistance phenotypes. The distribution of mean resistance scores was quantitative in both families. Resistance to pathotypes 2, 6 and 18 was correlated and independent from resistance to pathotype 1. DNA pools were constructed from the most resistant and most susceptible individuals and screened with genome wide simple sequence repeat (SSR), inverted simple sequence region (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Bulked segregant analysis identified three SSR markers that were linked to wart resistance loci (Sen). Sen1-XI on chromosome XI conferred partial resistance to pathotype 1, Sen18-IX on chromosome IX to pathotype 18 and Sen2/6/18-I on chromosome I to pathotypes 2,6 and 18. Additional genotyping with 191 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers confirmed the localization of the Sen loci. Thirty-three SNP markers linked to the Sen loci permitted the dissection of Sen alleles that increased or decreased resistance to wart. The alleles were inherited from both the resistant and susceptible parents. © 2011 The Author(s).

Mosquera T.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Mosquera T.,National University of Colombia | Alvarez M.F.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Alvarez M.F.,National University of Colombia | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The oomycete Phytophthora infestans causes late blight of potato, which can completely destroy the crop. Therefore, for the past 160 years, late blight has been the most important potato disease worldwide. The identification of cultivars with high and durable field resistance to P. infestans is an objective of most potato breeding programs. This type of resistance is polygenic and therefore quantitative. Its evaluation requires multi-year and location trials. Furthermore, quantitative resistance to late blight correlates with late plant maturity, a negative agricultural trait. Knowledge of the molecular genetic basis of quantitative resistance to late blight not compromised by late maturity is very limited. It is however essential for developing diagnostic DNA markers that facilitate the efficient combination of superior resistance alleles in improved cultivars. We used association genetics in a population of 184 tetraploid potato cultivars in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with maturity corrected resistance (MCR) to late blight. The population was genotyped for almost 9000 SNPs from three different sources. The first source was candidate genes specifically selected for their function in the jasmonate pathway. The second source was novel candidate genes selected based on comparative transcript profiling (RNA-Seq) of groups of genotypes with contrasting levels of quantitative resistance to P. infestans. The third source was the first generation 8.3k SolCAP SNP genotyping array available in potato for genome wide association studies (GWAS). Twenty seven SNPs from all three sources showed robust association with MCR. Some of those were located in genes that are strong candidates for directly controlling quantitative resistance, based on functional annotation. Most important were: a lipoxygenase (jasmonate pathway), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (mevalonate pathway), a P450 protein (terpene biosynthesis), a transcription factor and a homolog of a major gene for resistance to P. infestans from the wild potato species Solanum venturii. The candidate gene approach and GWAS complemented each other as they identified different genes. The results of this study provide new insight in the molecular genetic basis of quantitative resistance in potato and a toolbox of diagnostic SNP markers for breeding applications. © 2016 Mosquera et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Urbany C.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Stich B.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Schmidt L.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Simon L.,Bavaria Saat BGB GmbH | And 9 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011

Background: Most agronomic plant traits result from complex molecular networks involving multiple genes and from environmental factors. One such trait is the enzymatic discoloration of fruit and tuber tissues initiated by mechanical impact (bruising). Tuber susceptibility to bruising is a complex trait of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) that is crucial for crop quality. As phenotypic evaluation of bruising is cumbersome, the application of diagnostic molecular markers would empower the selection of low bruising potato varieties. The genetic factors and molecular networks underlying enzymatic tissue discoloration are sparsely known. Hitherto there is no association study dealing with tuber bruising and diagnostic markers for enzymatic discoloration are rare.Results: The natural genetic diversity for bruising susceptibility was evaluated in elite middle European potato germplasm in order to elucidate its molecular basis. Association genetics using a candidate gene approach identified allelic variants in genes that function in tuber bruising and enzymatic browning. Two hundred and five tetraploid potato varieties and breeding clones related by descent were evaluated for two years in six environments for tuber bruising susceptibility, specific gravity, yield, shape and plant maturity. Correlations were found between different traits. In total 362 polymorphic DNA fragments, derived from 33 candidate genes and 29 SSR loci, were scored in the population and tested for association with the traits using a mixed model approach, which takes into account population structure and kinship. Twenty one highly significant (p < 0.001) and robust marker-trait associations were identified.Conclusions: The observed trait correlations and associated marker fragments provide new insight in the molecular basis of bruising susceptibility and its natural variation. The markers diagnostic for increased or decreased bruising susceptibility will facilitate the combination of superior alleles in breeding programs. In addition, this study presents novel candidates that might control enzymatic tissue discoloration and tuber bruising. Their validation and characterization will increase the knowledge about the underlying biological processes. © 2011 Urbany et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Li L.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Li L.,Northeast Forestry University | Tacke E.,Bioplant GmbH | Hofferbert H.-R.,Bohm Nordkartoffel Agrarproduktion OHG | And 5 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Tuber yield, starch content, starch yield and chip color are complex traits that are important for industrial uses and food processing of potato. Chip color depends on the quantity of reducing sugars glucose and fructose in the tubers, which are generated by starch degradation. Reducing sugars accumulate when tubers are stored at low temperatures. Early and efficient selection of cultivars with superior yield, starch yield and chip color is hampered by the fact that reliable phenotypic selection requires multiple year and location trials. Application of DNA-based markers early in the breeding cycle, which are diagnostic for superior alleles of genes that control natural variation of tuber quality, will reduce the number of clones to be evaluated in field trials. Association mapping using genes functional in carbohydrate metabolism as markers has discovered alleles of invertases and starch phosphorylases that are associated with tuber quality traits. Here, we report on new DNA variants at loci encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and the invertase Pain-1, which are associated with positive or negative effect with chip color, tuber starch content and starch yield. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and marker validation were performed in tetraploid breeding populations, using various combinations of 11 allele-specific markers associated with tuber quality traits. To facilitate MAS, user-friendly PCR assays were developed for specific candidate gene alleles. In a multi-parental population of advanced breeding clones, genotypes were selected for having different combinations of five positive and the corresponding negative marker alleles. Genotypes combining five positive marker alleles performed on average better than genotypes with four negative alleles and one positive allele. When tested individually, seven of eight markers showed an effect on at least one quality trait. The direction of effect was as expected. Combinations of two to three marker alleles were identified that significantly improved average chip quality after cold storage and tuber starch content. In F1 progeny of a single-cross combination, MAS with six markers did not give the expected result. Reasons and implications for MAS in potato are discussed. © 2013 The Author(s).

Obidiegwu J.E.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Obidiegwu J.E.,National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike | Sanetomo R.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Sanetomo R.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | And 6 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2015

Background: The soil borne, obligate biotrophic fungus Synchytrium endobioticum causes tumor-like tissue proliferation (wart) in potato tubers and thereby considerable crop damage. Chemical control is not effective and unfriendly to the environment. S. endobioticum is therefore a quarantined pathogen. The emergence of new pathotypes of the fungus aggravate this agricultural problem. The best control of wart disease is the cultivation of resistant varieties. Phenotypic screening for resistant cultivars is however time, labor and material intensive. Breeding for resistance would therefore greatly benefit from diagnostic DNA markers that can be applied early in the breeding cycle. The prerequisite for the development of diagnostic DNA markers is the genetic dissection of the factors that control resistance to S. endobioticum in various genetic backgrounds of potato. Results: Progeny of a cross between a wart resistant and a susceptible tetraploid breeding clone was evaluated for resistance to S. endobioticum pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18 most relevant in Europe. The same progeny was genotyped with 195 microsatellite and 8303 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Linkage analysis identified the multi-allelic locus Sen1/RSe-XIa on potato chromosome XI as major factor for resistance to all four S. endobioticum pathotypes. Six additional, independent modifier loci had smaller effects on wart resistance. Combinations of markers linked to Sen1/RSe-XIa resistance alleles with one to two additional markers were sufficient for obtaining high levels of resistance to S. endobioticum pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18 in the analyzed genetic background. Conclusions: Potato resistance to S. endobioticum is oligogenic with one major and several minor resistance loci. It is composed of multiple alleles for resistance and susceptibility that originate from multiple sources. The genetics of resistance to S. endobioticum varies therefore between different genetic backgrounds. The DNA markers described in this paper are the starting point for pedigree based selection of cultivars with high levels of resistance to S. endobioticum pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18. © 2015 Obidiegwu et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

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