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Nakazawa C.M.,Discovery | Shikata K.,Eisai Co. | Uesugi M.,Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine Core Function Unit | Katayama H.,Eisai Inc | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction | Year: 2013

The effect of the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of relaxin-3 (RLX3) was evaluated using anxiety-related behavioral tests in rats. RLX3-injected animals showed normal locomotion activity in a habituated environment and declined anxiety cognition in the elevated plus maze test and the shock probe-burying test. The measurement of spontaneous locomotor activity in a novel environment also suggested that RLX3 reduced the stress response. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of the downstream signaling pathways underlying RLX3 activity and its relation to anxiolytic and hyperphagic behavior phenotypes, RLX3-i.c.v.-injected rat hypothalamic responses were examined using a microarray analysis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software listed the phenotype-relating genes and they showed characteristic expression patterns in the rat hypothalamus. When peptidome data sets for the same listed genes was analyzed using a semi-quantitative approach, the expressions of two neuropeptides were found to have increased. One of these neuropeptides, oxytocin (Oxt), exhibited increased expression in both the microarray and the peptidomic analysis, and a Western blot analysis validated the mass spectrometry results. A cross-omics data analysis is useful for predicting downstream signaling pathways, and the anxiolytic-like behavior of RLX3 may be mediated by an oxytocin signaling pathway in rats. These results suggest that RLX3 acts as an anxiolytic peptide and that the downstream pathways mediated by its receptors may be potential candidates for the treatment of anxieties in the future. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Inomata A.,Biopharmaceutical Assessments Core Function Unit | Nakano-Ito K.,Biopharmaceutical Assessments Core Function Unit | Fujikawa Y.,Biopharmaceutical Assessments Core Function Unit | Sonoda J.,Biopharmaceutical Assessments Core Function Unit | And 8 more authors.
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2014

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors are reported to cause reversible mucosal hyperplasia (adenosis) in the duodenum of rats; however, the pathogenesis is not fully elucidated. Using lenvatinib, a VEGF RTK inhibitor, we characterized the histologic time course of this duodenal change in rats. At 4 weeks, there was degeneration and necrosis of Brunner's gland epithelium accompanied by neutrophil infiltration around the affected glands. At 13 weeks, the inflammation was more extensive, and Brunner's gland epithelium was attenuated and flattened and was accompanied by reactive hyperplasia of duodenal epithelium. At 26 weeks, the changes became more severe and chronic and characterized by marked cystic dilation, which extended to the external muscular layer. These dilated glands exhibited morphological characteristics of duodenal crypt epithelium, suggestive of replacement of disappeared Brunner's glands by regenerative duodenal crypt epithelial cells. Similar changes were not present in similar time course studies in dog and monkey studies, suggesting that this is a rodent- or species-specific change. Based on the temporal progression of Brunner's gland lesion, we identify degeneration and necrosis of the Brunner's glands as the primary change leading to inflammation, cystic dilatation, and regeneration with cells that are morphologically suggestive of duodenal crypt epithelium. © 2014 by The Author(s). Source

Taketa Y.,Biopharmaceutical Assessments Core Function Unit | Taketa Y.,Osaka Prefecture University | Inomata A.,Biopharmaceutical Assessments Core Function Unit | Hosokawa S.,Biopharmaceutical Assessments Core Function Unit | And 8 more authors.
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2011

Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) is a known reproductive toxicant that induces luteal hypertrophy in rat ovaries. In this study, we characterized the histopathological features of corpora lutea (CL) from EGME-treated rats and compared them with normal CL formation and regression. Normally cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) intraperitoneally on the morning of estrus and their ovaries were examined 1 (metestrus), 4 (estrus), 8 (estrus), or 12 (estrus) days later to observe the transition of BrdU-labeled cells within in the CL. CL at each time point of estrus stage were classified into 4 types: Type I (newly formed CL), Type II (mature CL), Type III (regressing CL), and Type IV (residual CL). CL almost fully regressed within 4 estrus cycles. In contrast, in female rats given EGME orally (30, 100, or 300 mg/kg for 2 or 4 weeks), luteal cells were hypertrophic with abundant cytoplasm. Although the size of CL varied, all CL in EGME-treated rats had histological features similar to Type II CL, but they were more hypertrophic with less apoptosis. These results suggest that EGME has a luteal hypertrophic effect on all CL phases, including regression. © 2011 by The Author(s). Source

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