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Klein C.J.,Bionutrition Research Program | Klein C.J.,George Washington University | Villavicencio S.A.,George Washington University | Schweitzer A.,Childrens National Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association | Year: 2011

Assessing energy requirements is a fundamental activity in clinical dietetics practice. A study was designed to determine whether published linear regression equations were accurate for predicting resting energy expenditure (REE) in fasted Hispanic children with obesity (aged 7 to 15 years). REE was measured using indirect calorimetry; body composition was estimated with whole-body air displacement plethysmography. REE was predicted using four equations: Institute of Medicine for healthy-weight children (IOM-HW), IOM for overweight and obese children (IOM-OS), Harris-Benedict, and Schofield. Accuracy of the prediction was calculated as the absolute value of the difference between the measured and predicted REE divided by the measured REE, expressed as a percentage. Predicted values within 85% to 115% of measured were defined as accurate. Participants (n=58; 53% boys) were mean age 11.8±2.1 years, had 43.5%±5.1% body fat, and had a body mass index of 31.5±5.8 (98.6±1.1 body mass index percentile). Measured REE was 2,339±680 kcal/day; predicted REE was 1,815±401 kcal/day (IOM-HW), 1,794±311 kcal/day (IOM-OS), 1,151±300 kcal/day (Harris-Benedict), and, 1,771±316 kcal/day (Schofield). Measured REE adjusted for body weight averaged 32.0±8.4 kcal/kg/day (95% confidence interval 29.8 to 34.2). Published equations predicted REE within 15% accuracy for only 36% to 40% of 58 participants, except for Harris-Benedict, which did not achieve accuracy for any participant. The most frequently accurate values were obtained using IOM-HW, which predicted REE within 15% accuracy for 55% (17/31) of boys. Published equations did not accurately predict REE for youth in the study sample. Further studies are warranted to formulate accurate energy prediction equations for this population. © 2011 American Dietetic Association.

Klein C.J.,Bionutrition Research Program | Ravenis M.,Bionutrition Research Program | Kusenda C.,Bionutrition Research Program | Scavo L.,Bionutrition Research Program
Journal of the American Dietetic Association | Year: 2010

Parenteral nutrition-associated conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (PNAC), commonly defined as direct bilirubin ≥2 mg/dL (34.2 μmol/L), is primarily a pediatric disease with premature infants being the most susceptible. Severe morbidity and increased mortality are associated with bilirubin ≥10 mg/dL (171.0 μmol/L). The lack of knowledge regarding the cause of PNAC has stymied development of prevention and treatment strategies. A systematic search of published reports was conducted to provide data on histopathology of PNAC and to review prospective, randomized, controlled trials in hospitalized infants. In experiments of young animals, parenteral nutrition (PN) with and without soy oil emulsion is directly linked to hyperbilirubinemia, and the effects are exaggerated by overfeeding. In infants, the most consistently reported risk factor for PNAC is the duration of PN. The only known effective modality is the transition to full enteral feeding and discontinuation of PN. Emerging clinical research is evaluating the role of lipid source (soy vs fish) and motility agents, such as erythromycin. Different trace element preparations are associated with varying severity of cholestasis, a finding that also deserves more study. This article reviews the prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation, and treatment options for PNAC in neonatal intensive care units. © 2010 American Dietetic Association.

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