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Jefferson City, AR, United States

Bionetics Corporation | Date: 1979-05-22


Garrigan E.,University of Florida | Belkin N.S.,University of Florida | Belkin N.S.,University of Pennsylvania | Seydel F.,University of Florida | And 27 more authors.
Genetics and Epigenetics

In Type 1 diabetic (T1D) human monocytes, STAT5 aberrantly binds to epigenetic regulatory sites of two proinflammatory genes, CSF2 (encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) and PTGS2 (encoding prostaglandin synthase 2/cyclooxygenase 2). Bicongenic B6.NOD C11bxC1tb mice re-create this phenotype of T1D monocytes with only two nonobese diabetic (NOD) Idd subloci (130.8 Mb-149.7 Mb, of Idd5 on Chr 1 and 32.08-53.85 Mb of Idd4.3 on Chr11) on C57BL/6 genetic background. These two Idd loci interact through STAT5 binding at upstream regulatory regions affecting Csf2 (Chr 11) and Ptgs2 (Chr 1) expression. B6.NODC11bxC1tb mice exhibited hyperglycemia and immune destruction of pancreatic islets between 8 and 30 weeks of age, with 12%-22% penetrance. Thus, B6.NODC11bxC1tb mice embody NOD epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression in myeloid cells, and this defect appears to be sufficient to impart genetic susceptibility to diabetes in an otherwise genetically nonautoimmune mouse. © the authors. Source

Ferl R.J.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Ferl R.J.,University of Florida | Zupanska A.,University of Florida | Spinale A.,Bionetics Corporation | And 5 more authors.
Advances in Space Research

Molecular biology experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) continue to face challenges of sample harvesting and sample return to earth for post flight analysis; however, the use of Kennedy Space Center Fixation Tubes filled with RNALater has proven to be a robust solution to many of these challenges. While it is clear that one direction of future spaceflight experimentation may be towards enhanced on-orbit analytical capabilities, the rapid progress of earth-bound analytical capacity dictates that facile return of molecular biology samples from the ISS will continue to be a mainstay of space life sciences research and flight operations. In this paper we present a case study of the successful performance of KFTs and RNALater over a broad set of operational conditions of ascent configuration, on-orbit experiment use, on-orbit storage and sample return configurations that are unique to ISS current operations and constraints. We also provide observations on performance limits and discuss deployment opportunities and scenarios that are consistent with continued successful ISS molecular biology experimentation. © 2011 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Paule M.G.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Li M.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Allen R.R.,Peak Statistical Services | Liu F.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | And 6 more authors.
Neurotoxicology and Teratology

Previously our laboratory has shown that ketamine exposure (24. h of clinically relevant anesthesia) causes significant increases in neuronal cell death in perinatal rhesus monkeys. Sensitivity to this ketamine-induced neurotoxicity was observed on gestational days 120-123 (in utero exposure via maternal anesthesia) and on postnatal days (PNDs) 5-6, but not on PNDs 35-37. In the present study, six monkeys were exposed on PND 5 or 6 to intravenous ketamine anesthesia to maintain a light surgical plane for 24. h and six control animals were unexposed. At 7. months of age all animals were weaned and began training to perform a series of cognitive function tasks as part of the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) Operant Test Battery (OTB). The OTB tasks used here included those for assessing aspects of learning, motivation, color discrimination, and short-term memory. Subjects responded for banana-flavored food pellets by pressing response levers and press-plates during daily (M-F) test sessions (50. min) and were assigned training scores based upon their individual performance. As reported earlier (Paule et al., 2009) beginning around 10. months of age, control animals significantly outperformed (had higher training scores than) ketamine-exposed animals for approximately the next 10. months. For animals now over 3 and one-half years of age, the cognitive impairments continue to manifest in the ketamine-exposed group as poorer performance in the OTB learning and color and position discrimination tasks, as deficits in accuracy of task performance, but also in response speed. There are also apparent differences in the motivation of these animals which may be impacting OTB performance. These observations demonstrate that a single 24-h episode of ketamine anesthesia, occurring during a sensitive period of brain development, results in very long-lasting deficits in brain function in primates and provide proof-of-concept that general anesthesia during critical periods of brain development can result in subsequent functional deficits. Supported by NICHD, CDER/FDA and NCTR/FDA. © 2011. Source

Patterson T.A.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Li M.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Hotchkiss C.E.,Bionetics Corporation | Mauz A.,Boehringer Ingelheim | And 5 more authors.

Pramipexole (PPX) is a dopamine agonist approved for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease as well as restless leg syndrome. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of PPX when administered orally to juvenile rhesus monkeys once daily for 30 weeks, and to assess the reversibility of toxicity during a 12-week recovery. Rhesus monkeys (N=4 males and 4 females/group; 22-24 months of age) were orally treated daily for 30 weeks with 0.0, 0.1, 0.5 or 2.0. mg/kg PPX, and subjects were assessed daily using the NCTR Operant Test Battery (OTB). Clinical chemistry, hematology, ophthalmology and other standard postmortem toxicological evaluations, including histopathology and neuropathology as well as toxicokinetics were performed. The systemic exposure to PPX was higher than that at therapeutic doses in man and AUC(0-24. h)-data increased proportionally to dose. Blood pressure significantly decreased over time in all groups including control. Near the end of treatment, there were statistically significant decreases in heart rate for the 0.5 and 2.0. mg/kg/day groups compared to control. After 4 weeks of dosing, serum prolactin was significantly decreased in all treatment groups compared to control. This decrease remained at the end of treatment in the 0.5 and 2.0. mg/kg/day groups. In summary, administration of PPX at doses of up to 2.0. mg/kg/day for 30 weeks to juvenile rhesus monkeys produced adverse findings which were attributable to its pharmacological properties, including hypoprolactinemia. © 2010. Source

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