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Nelamangala, India

An attempt was made to gather data on certain reproductive traits of the sand whiting, Sillago sihama (family: Sillaginidae). The maximum weight recorded for male and female was 77.65 and 76.9 g respectively, while the maximum length obtained was 21.70 and 21.96 cm respectively. The highest percent of gravid females was found during September-October. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of females was marginally higher (3.84±5.8) than that of males (2.09±0.2); there was no significant difference in GSI of male and female (p>0.05), except in the months of April and July. The highest percentage of mature fish was recorded in June. The results confirm that S. sihama is a continuous breeder with two peak breeding seasons, one during May - June and the other during August - December. The absolute fecundity varied between 24,439 and 59,372 eggs/female, whereas the relative fecundity was observed to be between 4,29,953 and 8,66,968 eggs/kg body weight. The ova-diameter showed very little variation (0.32-0.46 mm) between individual females. Higher spermatozoa motility (97%) and duration (164 s) were observed in the month of July and higher level was maintained through November at 25 and 28 ppt saline water. The spermatozoa density (9.28 × 10 6 - 10.18 × 10 6 nos. ml -1) and spermatocrit (44.83 - 46.15%) were high during the same period. The results also indicate a direct relationship between the two characteristics. Histological examination of ovary of S. sihama revealed the presence of oocytes at different stages of maturity. The immature gonads showed maximum percentage of oogonia, while the mature gonad had maximum proportion of mature and vitellogenic atretic oocytes. The spent ovary showed fewer oogonia, vitellogenic atretic oocytes and corpus luteum. Histology of the testis indicated the presence of male germ cells such as spermatogonia, spermatids, spermatocytes and spermatozoa depending upon the stage of maturity, with the testis of spent fish showing the presence of more or less empty seminiferous lobules with few residual spermatozoa. Source

Raghunatha Reddy K.R.,BIONEEDS Preclinical Services | Vinaya Babu S.N.,BIONEEDS Preclinical Services | Raghavendra N.,BIONEEDS Preclinical Services | Sridhar M.,BIONEEDS Preclinical Services | And 2 more authors.
Toxicology International | Year: 2013

Objectives: TLPL/AY/03/2008 is a polyherbal formulation intended for treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, lumbago, spondylitis etc., Acute and repeated dose 90-days studies were conducted to evaluate the safety profile of TLPL/AY/03/2008 in rats. Materials and Methods: In acute study, TLPL/AY/03/2008 was orally administered to Sprague Dawley rats at 2000 mg/kg. In repeated dose study, TLPL/AY/03/2008 was administered to rats at 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg through oral gavage for 90 days and assessed for treatment related changes in body weight, feed consumption, hematological, biochemical and pathological parameters. Histopathological examination was conducted for tissues from control and the high dose groups and was extended to target organs from the lower dose and recovery groups. Results: In acute study, the test item did not produce any mortality or adverse clinical signs. In the 90-days oral toxicity study, animals did not exhibit any toxicity symptoms and no deaths were observed. No significant changes were found in hematological and biochemical endpoints. Also, toxicologically significant alterations in relative organ weights were not observed. Microscopic findings of mild to marked, diffuse hepatocellular degeneration (vacuolar changes with granular of cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei of hepatocytes) was noticed in males at 1000 mg/kg body weight. Animals of recovery group (1000 mg/kg) did not show any changes when compared with control group animals indicating the complete reversal. Conclusions: Based on the findings of the study, the median lethal dose of TLPL/AY/03/2008 was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of TLPL/AY/03/2008 can be considered as 1000 mg/kg in both male and female rats, under the experimental conditions and doses employed. Source

Geetha G.N.,BIONEEDS Preclinical Services | Rekha S.,BIONEEDS Preclinical Services | Raghunatha Reddy K.R.,BIONEEDS Preclinical Services | Vinaya Babu S.N.,BIONEEDS Preclinical Services | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2014

Disinfectants were tested for their inhibitory activities against commonly occurring bacterial strains Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and fungal strains like Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The inhibition was recorded by measuring the zone of inhibition of the disinfectants on the tested organisms. The results revealed that the disinfectants Sepsonil DX Cream, Sarvodin, Povidone Iodine 7.5% Solution USP, Sterital, Sidol + (Cetrimide and Chlorohexidine Gluconate), Sidol, Sterilhandz, Sepsonil DX, Microcleer + Chlorhexidine Surgical Wash and Povidone-Iodine Cleaning Solution U.S.P. 10% w/v Surgical Scrub were very effective as it inhibited the growth of Acinetobacter baumannii (BAA-1605), Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, ATCC 8739, BAA196, BAA198, BAA199, BAA 200, BAA 201 and BAA 457), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (BAA-2109), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 51503), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027). Only disinfectants Microcleer + Chlorhexidine Surgical Wash and Povidone-Iodine Cleaning Solution U.S.P. 10% w/v Surgical Scrub were resulted antifungal activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404). Source

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