Upper Saint Clair, PA, United States
Upper Saint Clair, PA, United States

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Marrinucci D.,Scripps Research Institute | Marrinucci D.,General Atomics | Bethel K.,Scripps Research Institute | Kolatkar A.,Scripps Research Institute | And 25 more authors.
Physical Biology | Year: 2012

Hematologic spread of carcinoma results in incurable metastasis; yet, the basic characteristics and travel mechanisms of cancer cells in the bloodstream are unknown. We have established a fluid phase biopsy approach that identifies circulating tumor cells (CTCs) without using surface protein-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. This 'HD-CTC' assay finds >5 HD-CTCs mL -1 of blood in 80% of patients with metastatic prostate cancer (n = 20), in 70% of patients with metastatic breast cancer (n = 30), in 50% of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (n = 18), and in 0% of normal controls (n = 15). Additionally, it finds HD-CTC clusters ranging from 2 HD-CTCs to greater than 30 HD-CTCs in the majority of these cancer patients. This initial validation of an enrichment-free assay demonstrates our ability to identify significant numbers of HD-CTCs in a majority of patients with prostate, breast and pancreatic cancers. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Hampton O.A.,Baylor College of Medicine | Hampton O.A.,Bionanomatrix Inc. | Miller C.A.,Baylor College of Medicine | Miller C.A.,University of Washington | And 12 more authors.
Cancer Genetics | Year: 2011

Cancer genomes frequently undergo genomic instability resulting in accumulation of chromosomal rearrangement. To date, one of the main challenges has been to confidently and accurately identify these rearrangements by using short-read massively parallel sequencing. We were able to improve cancer rearrangement detection by combining two distinct massively parallel sequencing strategies: fosmid-sized (36 kb on average) and standard 5 kb mate pair libraries. We applied this combined strategy to map rearrangements in two breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and HCC1954. We detected and validated a total of 91 somatic rearrangements in MCF7 and 25 in HCC1954, including genomic alterations corresponding to previously reported transcript aberrations in these two cell lines. Each of the genomes contains two types of breakpoints: clustered and dispersed. In both cell lines, the dispersed breakpoints show enrichment for low copy repeats, while the clustered breakpoints associate with high copy number amplifications. Comparing the two genomes, we observed highly similar structural mutational spectra affecting different sets of genes, pointing to similar histories of genomic instability against the background of very different gene network perturbations. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Su T.,University of Pennsylvania | Das S.K.,Bionanomatrix Inc. | Xiao M.,Bionanomatrix Inc. | Purohit P.K.,University of Pennsylvania
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

We measure the thermal fluctuation of the internal segments of a piece of DNA confined in a nanochannel about 50-100 nm wide. This local thermodynamic property is key to accurate measurement of distances in genomic analysis. For DNA in ~100 nm channels, we observe a critical length scale ~10 μm for the mean extension of internal segments, below which the de Gennes' theory describes the fluctuations with no fitting parameters, and above which the fluctuation data falls into Odijk's deflection theory regime. By analyzing the probability distributions of the extensions of the internal segments, we infer that folded structures of length 150-250 nm, separated by ~10 μm exist in the confined DNA during the transition between the two regimes. For ~50 nm channels we find that the fluctuation is significantly reduced since the Odijk regime appears earlier. This is critical for genomic analysis. We further propose a more detailed theory based on small fluctuations and incorporating the effects of confinement to explicitly calculate the statistical properties of the internal fluctuations. Our theory is applicable to polymers with heterogeneous mechanical properties confined in non-uniform channels. We show that existing theories for the end-to-end extension/fluctuation of polymers can be used to study the internal fluctuations only when the contour length of the polymer is many times larger than its persistence length. Finally, our results suggest that introducing nicks in the DNA will not change its fluctuation behavior when the nick density is below 1 nick per kbp DNA. © 2011 Su et al.


An array of nano-channels was fabricated from silicon based semiconductor materials to stretch long, native dsDNA. Here we present a labeling scheme in which it is possible to identify the location of specific sequences along the stretched DNA molecules. The scheme proceeds by first using the strand displacement activity of the Vent (exo-) polymerase to generate single strand flaps on nicked dsDNA. These single strand flaps are hybridized with sequence specific fluorophore-labeled probes. Subsequent imaging of the DNA molecules inside a nano-channel array device allows for quantitative identification of the location of probes. The highly efficient DNA hybridization on the ss-DNA flaps is an excellent method to identify the sequence motifs of dsDNA as it gives us unique ability to control the length of the probe sequence and thus the frequency of hybridization sites on the DNA. We have also shown that this technique can be extended to a multi color labeling scheme by using different dye labeled probes or by combining with a DNA- polymerase-mediated incorporation of fluorophore-labeled nucleotides on nicking sites. Thus this labeling chemistry in conjunction with the nano-channel platform can be a powerful tool to solve complex structural variations in DNA which is of importance for both research and clinical diagnostics of genetic diseases.


Das S.K.,Bionanomatrix Inc. | Austin M.D.,Bionanomatrix Inc. | Akana M.C.,Bionanomatrix Inc. | Deshpande P.,Bionanomatrix Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2010

An array of nano-channels was fabricated from silicon based semiconductor materials to stretch long, native dsDNA. Here we present a labeling scheme in which it is possible to identify the location of specific sequences along the stretched DNA molecules. The scheme proceeds by first using the strand displacement activity of the Vent (exo-) polymerase to generate single strand flaps on nicked dsDNA. These single strand flaps are hybridized with sequence specific fluorophore-labeled probes. Subsequent imaging of the DNA molecules inside a nano-channel array device allows for quantitative identification of the location of probes. The highly efficient DNA hybridization on the ss-DNA flaps is an excellent method to identify the sequence motifs of dsDNA as it gives us unique ability to control the length of the probe sequence and thus the frequency of hybridization sites on the DNA. We have also shown that this technique can be extended to a multi color labeling scheme by using different dye labeled probes or by combining with a DNA- polymerase-mediated incorporation of fluorophore-labeled nucleotides on nicking sites. Thus this labeling chemistry in conjunction with the nano-channel platform can be a powerful tool to solve complex structural variations in DNA which is of importance for both research and clinical diagnostics of genetic diseases. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.


Trademark
Bionanomatrix Inc. | Date: 2010-12-06

Assays and reagents for use in genetic research; Genetic identity tests comprised of reagents.


Trademark
Bionanomatrix Inc. | Date: 2010-12-06

Computer software used in medical/laboratory and diagnostic instrumentation.


Trademark
Bionanomatrix Inc. | Date: 2010-12-06

Control software for analytical instrumentation.


Trademark
Bionanomatrix Inc. | Date: 2010-12-06

Analytical instrument components.


PubMed | Bionanomatrix Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nucleic acids research | Year: 2010

An array of nano-channels was fabricated from silicon based semiconductor materials to stretch long, native dsDNA. Here we present a labeling scheme in which it is possible to identify the location of specific sequences along the stretched DNA molecules. The scheme proceeds by first using the strand displacement activity of the Vent (exo-) polymerase to generate single strand flaps on nicked dsDNA. These single strand flaps are hybridized with sequence specific fluorophore-labeled probes. Subsequent imaging of the DNA molecules inside a nano-channel array device allows for quantitative identification of the location of probes. The highly efficient DNA hybridization on the ss-DNA flaps is an excellent method to identify the sequence motifs of dsDNA as it gives us unique ability to control the length of the probe sequence and thus the frequency of hybridization sites on the DNA. We have also shown that this technique can be extended to a multi color labeling scheme by using different dye labeled probes or by combining with a DNA- polymerase-mediated incorporation of fluorophore-labeled nucleotides on nicking sites. Thus this labeling chemistry in conjunction with the nano-channel platform can be a powerful tool to solve complex structural variations in DNA which is of importance for both research and clinical diagnostics of genetic diseases.

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