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Verdun, France

Ramparany L.,Institute Pasteur Of La Guadeloupe | Ramirez J.,Hopital dInstruction des Armees du Val de Grace | Nizou J.-Y.,Biomnis | Le Saux D.,Center Hospitalier Of Basse Terre | And 2 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2011

Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a sensitive and specific marker of acute coronary syndromes and myocardial damage. During the past few years, it has become the preferred biochemical marker of myocardial infarction. However, due to the sensitivity required for its detection, only automated systems can be used in developed countries. However, these are rather expensive and unaffordable for most laboratories in developing countries. Many manufacturers have therefore proposed rapid immunochromatographic tests to detect cTnI. The aim of this study was to assess the limit of detection (LOD) and performance of four rapid immunochromatographic tests available in Madagascar. The four tests evaluated were Hexagon Troponin, Nadal troponin I cassette, Troponitest+, and Amicheck-Trop. Amicheck-Trop had a sensitivity and negative predictive value of about 80%, whereas for the three others, they were about 20%. The specificity of Amicheck-Trop of 87.3% was lower than the specificities of the other tests (98% to 100%). These differences were explained by the limits of detection of the tests: 0.3 to 0.4 ng/ml for Amicheck-Trop but only 1.8 to 2 ng/ml for the three other tests. It was concluded that Amicheck-Trop could be useful in the management of acute myocardial infarction or myocarditis in sparsely equipped laboratories in developing countries. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Shahali Y.,ESPCI ParisTech | Sutra J.-P.,ESPCI ParisTech | Haddad I.,ESPCI ParisTech | Vinh J.,ESPCI ParisTech | And 6 more authors.
Electrophoresis | Year: 2012

Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, Cups) pollen causes allergic diseases in inhabitants of many of the cities surrounding the Mediterranean basin. However, allergens of Cups pollen are still poorly known. We introduce here a novel proteomic approach based on double one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (D1-DE) as an alternative to the 2-DE immunoblot, for the specific IgE screening of allergenic proteins from pollen extracts. The sequential one-dimensional combination of IEF and SDS-PAGE associated with IgE immunoblotting allows a versatile multiplexed immunochemical analysis of selected groups of allergens by converting a single protein spot into an extended protein band. Moreover, the method appears to be valuable for MS/MS identification, without protein purification, of a new Cups pollen allergen at 43kDa. D1-DE immunoblotting revealed that the prevalence of IgE sensitization to this allergen belonging to the polygalacturonase (PG) family was 70% in tested French allergic patients. In subsequent triple one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the Cups pollen PG was shown to promote lectin-based protein-protein interactions. Therefore, D1-DE could be used in routine work as a convenient alternative to 2-DE immunoblotting for the simultaneous screening of allergenic components under identical experimental conditions, thereby saving considerable amounts of sera and allergen extracts. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Shahali Y.,ESPCI ParisTech | Sutra J.-P.,ESPCI ParisTech | Mari A.,Center for Molecular Allergology | Guilloux L.,Biomnis | And 4 more authors.
FEBS Journal | Year: 2012

The common cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) (Cups) pollen represents the first cause of respiratory allergies in the Mediterranean basin. The aim of this study was to characterize a novel 14-kDa cypress pollen allergen (BP14) allowing a clear dissociation of IgE sensitization patterns among allergic patients. The biochemical and immunochemical characterization of BP14 included determination of its isoelectric point, molecular mass, extraction kinetics, IgE binding prevalence, the presence of bromelain-type cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant and its IgE reactivity under reducing conditions. The presence of potential cross-reactive homologues in closely related cypress species, i.e. Cupressus arizonica (Cupa) and Cryptomeria japonica (Cryj), as well as in several taxonomically unrelated species was also investigated. According to our results, BP14 is easily and quickly solubilized in phosphate-buffered saline and exhibits several allergenic isoforms covering a broad range of pI (6.5-10.5). This allergen displays heat-stable conformational epitopes and does not include cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants, in contrast to high molecular weight cypress allergens. BP14 is expressed at higher levels in Cups than in Cupa and Cryj. No IgE cross-reactivity was found between the 14-kDa Cups pollen protein and proteins from some other non-Cupressaceae pollen allergenic sources such as orchard, timothy, wheat, maize, birch, ash and pine. Thus, IgE reactivity to BP14 is specific to Cupressaceae and discriminates two groups of patients allergic to cypress pollen. It might correspond to a relevant marker in relation to the sensitization process and/or the symptoms observed in some cypress-pollen-allergic patients. Furthermore, the description of BP14 should improve the diagnosis of cypress pollinosis. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

Roulette C.J.,Washington State University | Mann H.,Binghamton University State University of New York | Kemp B.M.,Washington State University | Remiker M.,Oregon Health And Science University | And 7 more authors.
Evolution and Human Behavior | Year: 2014

We tested a novel hypothesis that recreational use of neurotoxic plants helps defend against parasites. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between smoking and helminthiasis among the Aka, a remote population of Central African foragers who are avid tobacco smokers, suffer high rates of helminthiasis, and have little-to-no access to commercial anthelmintics. Two hundred and six healthy Aka men provided saliva and stool samples. Saliva samples were assayed for cotinine, a nicotine metabolite; a subsample was genotyped for the CYP2A6 enzyme, which metabolizes nicotine. Stool samples were assayed for intestinal helminth eggs as an index of worm burden. After 1. year, a subsample of participants was located and provided additional saliva and stool samples. We found (1) an exceptionally high prevalence of tobacco use, (2) a significant negative correlation between cotinine (a nicotine metabolite) and worm burden, (3) that treating helminths with albendazole, a commercial anthelmintic, reduced cotinine concentration two weeks later, compared to placebo controls, (4) among treated participants, higher cotinine concentrations in year 1 predicted less reinfection by year 2, and (5) younger and older participants with slow nicotine-metabolizing CYP2A6 alleles had lower worm burdens compared to those with extensive metabolizing alleles. These results provide the first evidence of a link between helminthiasis and smoking. They also suggest that, in populations where intestinal helminths are endemic, tobacco use might protect against helminth infection and reduce worm burden among infected individuals, and that individuals modulate nicotine exposure in response to infection. The results thus support the hypothesis that substance use helps defend against parasites. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Mace G.,University of Burgundy | Feyeux C.,University of Burgundy | Mollard N.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Chantegret C.,University of Burgundy | And 7 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2013

We report the first detection of Seoul virus (SEOV) in humans in Europe, causing severe disease in a pregnant woman in France in October 2012. The patient's laboratory test results mimicked that of pregnancy-induced liver pathologies such as acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) with severe renal failure. This led to an emergency delivery (at 27 weeks' gestation). On the basis of gene S (small) sequence analysis, the Seoul hantavirus strain detected was found to belong to the main SEOV phylogroup.

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