Tríkala, Greece
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Dinas P.C.,Performance Technology | Koutedakis Y.,University of Thessaly | Koutedakis Y.,University of Wolverhampton | Flouris A.D.,Performance Technology | Flouris A.D.,Biomnic Ltd.
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Given the widespread incidence of smoking as well as its deleterious health effects, it is crucial to examine practical and cost effective prognostic markers assessing its health impact. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a straightforward and cost effective technique to foresee health problems of cardiovascular nature and may be used to predict in advance smoking-induced health effects. In this review we evaluate the existing biological evidence regarding the effects of smoking on HRV and their associated cardiovascular consequences. In addition, we summarize fundamental information on the various HRV indicators and their diagnostic significance in relation to heart failure. An in depth analysis of the various HRV indices characterizing changes in the activation of the autonomic nervous system is provided together with a critical evaluation of all evidence published to date on the influence of chronic and acute active and passive smoking on HRV. Overall, the vast majority of published evidence suggests that acute and chronic active and passive smoking generate marked disruptions in the normal autonomic nervous system functioning characterized by increased sympathetic drive and reduced HRV and parasympathetic modulation. The proposed mechanisms that may generate this smoke-induced HRV reduction as well as its clinical implications are thoroughly evaluated. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Flouris A.D.,Performance Technology | Flouris A.D.,Biomnic Ltd. | Metsios G.S.,University of Wolverhampton | Carrill A.E.,Performance Technology | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

We assessed the cardiorespiratory and immune response to physical exertion following secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure through a randomized crossover experiment. Data were obtained from 16 (8 women) non-smoking adults during and following a maximal oxygen uptake cycling protocol administered at baseline and at 0-, 1-, and 3- hours following 1-hour of SHS set at bar/restaurant carbon monoxide levels. We found that SHS was associated with a 12% decrease in maximum power output, an 8.2% reduction in maximal oxygen consumption, a 6% increase in perceived exertion, and a 6.7% decrease in time to exhaustion (P<0.05). Moreover, at 0-hours almost all respiratory and immune variables measured were adversely affected (P<0.05). For instance, FEV 1 values at 0-hours dropped by 17.4%, while TNF-α increased by 90.1% (P<0.05). At 3-hours mean values of cotinine, perceived exertion and recovery systolic blood pressure in both sexes, IL4, TNF-α and IFN-γ in men, as well as FEV 1/FVC, percent predicted FEV 1, respiratory rate, and tidal volume in women remained different compared to baseline (P<0.05). It is concluded that a 1-hour of SHS at bar/restaurant levels adversely affects the cardiorespiratory and immune response to maximal physical exertion in healthy nonsmokers for at least three hours following SHS. © 2012 Flouris et al.


Carrillo A.E.,Performance Technology | Koutedakis Y.,University of Wolverhampton | Koutedakis Y.,University of Thessaly | Flouris A.D.,Performance Technology | Flouris A.D.,Biomnic Ltd.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2011

The malleability of mammalian biology during early life, which carries considerable weight throughout the course of the lifespan, may contribute to the creation of a human phenotype ideal for prime physical performance. In this article, the authors consider the East African cohort of exceptional athletes that dominate marathon performance. Since entering international marathon competition in 1960, East Africans have competed at the front of the pack and now hold the top 10 men's marathon times. The authors present lines of evidence supporting that exposure to factors such as altitude and early metabolic adjustments that are inherent in East African early life exert a strong influence in later life physical performance and may collide with a genetic advantage to induce biological changes that allow for a more robust biological response to training in later life.


Dinas P.C.,University of Thessaly | Koutedakis Y.,University of Thessaly | Flouris A.D.,Performance Technology | Flouris A.D.,Biomnic Ltd.
Irish Journal of Medical Science | Year: 2011

Introduction: Depression is a very prevalent mental disorder affecting 340 million people globally and is projected to become the leading cause of disability and the second leading contributor to the global burden of disease by the year 2020. Aim: In this paper, we review the evidence published to date in order to determine whether exercise and physical activity can be used as therapeutic means for acute and chronic depression. Topics covered include the definition, classification criteria and treatment of depression, the link between β-endorphin and exercise, the efficacy of exercise and physical activity as treatments for depression, properties of exercise stimuli used in intervention programs, as well as the efficacy of exercise and physical activity for treating depression in diseased individuals. Conclusions: The presented evidence suggests that exercise and physical activity have beneficial effects on depression symptoms that are comparable to those of antidepressant treatments. © Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland 2010.


Carrillo A.E.,Performance Technology | Christodoulou V.X.,Performance Technology | Koutedakis Y.,University of Thessaly | Flouris A.D.,Biomnic Ltd.
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2011

We assessed autonomic nervous system modulation through changes in heart rate variability during an archery competition as well as archery performance by comparing novice and experienced adolescent archers. Seven novice (age 14.0±8.5 years, body mass index 22.9±4.3 kg · m-2, training experience 0.4±0.3 years) and ten experienced archers (age 16.5±10.3 years, body mass index 22.4±3.1 kg · m-2, training experience 4.1±0.9 years) volunteered. Using beat-by-beat heart rate monitoring, heart rate variability was measured for 20 s before each arrow shot during two rounds of competition. We found that, compared with novices, experienced adolescent archers: (i) take more time per shot; (ii) have a higher low frequency band, square root of the mean of squared differences between successive R-R intervals (i.e. the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the electrocardiogram), and percentage of successive normal-to-normal intervals greater than 50 ms; and (iii) demonstrate an increase in parasympathetic nervous system activity compared with pre-competition values. We propose that these characteristics of experienced archers are appropriate for optimal performance during competition. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Carrillo A.E.,Performance Technology | Cheung S.S.,Brock University | Flouris A.D.,Performance Technology | Flouris A.D.,Biomnic Ltd.
Microcirculation | Year: 2011

Objectives: To generate a model that predicts fingertip blood flow (BF f) and to cross-validate it in another group of subjects. Methods: We used fingertip temperature (T f), forearm temperature minus T f (T For-f), rectal temperature (T re), and their changes across time ( lagT) to estimate BF f. Ten participants (six male, four female) were randomly divided into "model" and "validation" groups. We employed a passive hot-cold water immersion protocol during which each participant's core temperature increased and decreased by 0.5°C above/below baseline during hot/cold conditions, respectively. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was introduced to generate models using temperature indicators and lagT (independent variables) obtained from the model group to predict BF f (dependent variable). Results: Mean BF f (109.5±158.2PU) and predicted BF f (P-BF f) (111.4±136.7PU) in the model group calculated using the strongest (R 2=0.766, p<0.001) prediction model [P-BF f =T f× 19.930+ lag4T f×74.766+ lag4T re×124.255-447.474] were similar (p=0.6) and correlated (r=0.880, p<0.001). Autoregressive integrated moving average time-series analyses demonstrated a significant association between P-BF f and BF f (R 2=0.381; Ljung-Box statistic=8.097; p<0.001) in the validation group. Conclusions: We provide a model that predicts BF f via two practical temperature indicators that can be implemented in both clinical and field settings. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Carrillo A.E.,Performance Technology | Flouris A.D.,Performance Technology | Flouris A.D.,Biomnic Ltd.
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2011

Caloric restriction (CR) causes a reduction in body temperature (Tb) which is suggested to contribute to changes that increase lifespan. Moreover, low Tb has been shown to improve health and longevity independent of CR. In this review we examine the connections between CR, Tb and mechanisms that influence longevity and ageing. Recent findings regarding the overlapping mechanisms of CR and Tb that benefit longevity are discussed, including changes in body composition, hormone regulation, and gene expression, as well as reductions in low-level inflammation and reactive oxygen species-induced molecular damage. This information is summarized in a model describing how CR and low Tb, both synergistically and independently, increase lifespan. Moreover, the nascent notion that the rate of ageing may be pre-programmed in response to environmental influences at critical periods of early development is also considered. Based on current evidence, it is concluded that low Tb plays an integral role in mediating the effects of CR on health and longevity, and that low Tb may exert independent biological changes that increase lifespan. Our understanding of the overlap between CR- and Tb-mediated longevity remains incomplete and should be explored in future research. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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