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Rodrigues I.,BIOMIN Singapore Pte Ltd | Naehrer K.,Biomin Holding GmbH
Toxins | Year: 2012

Between January 2009 and December 2011, a total of 7049 corn, soybean/soybean meal, wheat, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and finished feed samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxins (Afla), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FUM) and ochratoxin A (OTA). Samples were sourced in the Americas, Europe and Asia. Afla, ZEN, DON, FUM and OTA were present respectively in 33%, 45%, 59% 64% and 28% of analyzed samples between 2009 and 2011. From the 23,781 mycotoxin analyzes performed, 81% were positive for at least one mycotoxin. Results of this survey are provided by calendar year, in order to potentially show different trends on mycotoxin occurrence in distinct years: by commodity type and within the same commodity, and by region, to potentially reveal differences in mycotoxin contamination in commodities sourced in diverse regions. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Tola S.,Khon Kaen University | Bureau D.P.,University of Guelph | Hooft J.M.,University of Guelph | Beamish F.W.H.,Burapha University | And 4 more authors.
Toxins | Year: 2015

An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg−1) on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish). Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN) (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mg·kg−1). Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growthrate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusariummycotoxins (p< 0.05). Although growth depression was associated with feeding diets naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, especially DON, no biochemical and histopathological parameters measured in blood and liver appeared affected by Fusariummycotoxin concentrations of diets (p> 0.05). Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusariummycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Streit E.,Research Center | Naehrer K.,Biomin Holding GmbH | Rodrigues I.,BIOMIN Singapore Pte Ltd | Schatzmayr G.,Research Center
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

During an 8-year period, 17 316 samples of feed and feed raw materials from all over the world were analysed for contamination with aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins. Overall, 72% of the samples tested positive for at least one mycotoxin and 38% were found to be co-contaminated. Mycotoxin concentrations were generally low and the majority of the samples were compliant with the most stringent EU guidance values or maximum levels for mycotoxins in feed. However, in their present state these regulations do not address co-contamination and associated risks. Long-term trends are difficult to establish as strong yearly variations were observed regarding mycotoxin prevalence and contamination levels. In some cases unusual weather conditions can be linked with high observed mycotoxin loads. An exception to this rule is South-East Asia, where a steady increase of aflatoxin prevalence has been observed. The percentage of aflatoxin-positive samples in this region rose from 32% in 2005 to 71% in 2011. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Hooft J.M.,University of Guelph | Elmor A.E.H.I.,University of Guelph | Encarnacao P.,BIOMIN Singapore Pte Ltd | Bureau D.P.,University of Guelph
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

Deoxynivalenol (DON), a Fusarium mycotoxin, is a major contaminant of cereal grains worldwide. The effects of feeding six diets containing low, graded levels of DON from two naturally contaminated sources of corn on the performance, health and apparent nutrient digestibility of rainbow trout were investigated. Feeding diets with increasing levels of DON (0.3, 0.8, 1.4, 2.0 and 2.6. ppm) for eight weeks to rainbow trout (initial weight = 24. g/fish) resulted in significant linear or quadratic decreases in feed intake, weight gain, growth rate (expressed as thermal-unit growth coefficient, TGC), feed efficiency (FE, gain:feed), retained nitrogen (RN), recovered energy (RE), energy retention efficiency (ERE), and nitrogen retention efficiency (NRE). Fish pair-fed the control diet (0.3. ppm DON) had significantly higher TGC (P < 0.01), FE (P < 0.0001) and whole body crude protein (CP) concentration (P < 0.01) compared to their counterparts fed the diet containing 2.6. ppm DON. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of CP and gross energy (GE) of fish fed diets containing 0.3 (control) to 2.0. ppm DON. In addition, some morphological changes of the liver were noted in fish fed the diet containing 2.6. ppm DON. These results suggest that, relative to other species, rainbow trout are extremely sensitive to DON from naturally contaminated grains and that the effects of DON on rainbow trout are not simply related to a reduction of feed intake, but rather, are due to metabolic effects. More research is required to identify the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of DON in rainbow trout. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Krummenauer D.,Grande Rio University | Poersch L.,Grande Rio University | Romano L.A.,Grande Rio University | Lara G.R.,Grande Rio University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Aquaculture | Year: 2014

We analyzed the effect of commercial bacterial probiotics on a Litopenaeus vannamei biofloc culture system infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Three replicates of two experimental treatments were conducted: a control system (without probiotic) and a system with the application of a multistrain probiotic containing Bacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Thiobacillus spp., and Paracoccus spp. applied to the water and another multistrain probiotic containing Bacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., and Lactobacillus spp. added to the feed. Growth and survival rate were significantly higher in the probiotic treatment group (P < 0.05), and the shrimp in the probiotic group also had a lower (P < 0.05) FCR compared to the shrimp in the control group (1.4 vs. 2.7). © , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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