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Krummenauer D.,Grande Rio University | Poersch L.,Grande Rio University | Romano L.A.,Grande Rio University | Lara G.R.,Grande Rio University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Aquaculture | Year: 2014

We analyzed the effect of commercial bacterial probiotics on a Litopenaeus vannamei biofloc culture system infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Three replicates of two experimental treatments were conducted: a control system (without probiotic) and a system with the application of a multistrain probiotic containing Bacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Thiobacillus spp., and Paracoccus spp. applied to the water and another multistrain probiotic containing Bacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., and Lactobacillus spp. added to the feed. Growth and survival rate were significantly higher in the probiotic treatment group (P < 0.05), and the shrimp in the probiotic group also had a lower (P < 0.05) FCR compared to the shrimp in the control group (1.4 vs. 2.7). © , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is one of the major mycotoxins to affect animal health. AFB1 contamination of aquafeed is widespread, especially in countries with humid, tropical climates. The most applied method for protecting animals against aflatoxicosis is the use of clay minerals. Growth performance, immunosuppressive effects (bactericidal activity, lysozyme activity, albumin/globulin ratio, alternative complement pathway activity, and protein content), and pathology parameters were used to evaluate the response of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) to increasing concentrations of AFB1 and test the protective effect of dietary supplementation with a bentonite (dioctahedral montmorillonite) based AFB1 binder. Triplicate groups of yellow catfish with an average weight of 2.0 ± 0.1 g were fed diets containing 0, 200, 500, and 1,000 μg/kg of AFB1 alone, or diets containing 0, 200, 500, and 1,000 μg/kg of AFB1 along with 2 g/kg AFB1 binder, for 12 weeks. Results showed that diets containing increasing amounts of AFB1 had a significantly lower (P = 0.002) survival rate. There was a statistical significant reduction in weight gain, final body weight, and specific growth rate, and an increase in feed conversion ratio (FCR) influenced by the levels of AFB1 in the diet (P < 0.001 for all parameters), as well as increasing protection due to the presence of the binder (P = 0.046, P = 0.014, P = 0.038, and P = 0.485, respectively). The immunosuppressive nature of AFB1 in yellow catfish diets was confirmed through observation of lower bactericidal activity (P = 0.001), lower lysozyme activity (P = 0.006), reduced total protein (P = 0.002), and enhanced albumin/globulin ratio (P = 0.004). Fish fed diets contaminated with AFB1 and supplemented with the AFB1 binder showed better improvement in FCR (P = 0.019). These results indicate that AFB1 has a negative impact on yellow catfish growth and survival rate. The AFB1 binder protected fish from the toxic effects of AFB1. © 2016 Universidad Autonoma de Baja California. All rights reserved.


Rodrigues I.,BIOMIN Singapore Pte Ltd | Naehrer K.,Biomin Holding GmbH
Toxins | Year: 2012

Between January 2009 and December 2011, a total of 7049 corn, soybean/soybean meal, wheat, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and finished feed samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxins (Afla), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FUM) and ochratoxin A (OTA). Samples were sourced in the Americas, Europe and Asia. Afla, ZEN, DON, FUM and OTA were present respectively in 33%, 45%, 59% 64% and 28% of analyzed samples between 2009 and 2011. From the 23,781 mycotoxin analyzes performed, 81% were positive for at least one mycotoxin. Results of this survey are provided by calendar year, in order to potentially show different trends on mycotoxin occurrence in distinct years: by commodity type and within the same commodity, and by region, to potentially reveal differences in mycotoxin contamination in commodities sourced in diverse regions. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Streit E.,Research Center | Naehrer K.,Biomin Holding GmbH | Rodrigues I.,BIOMIN Singapore Pte Ltd | Schatzmayr G.,Research Center
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

During an 8-year period, 17 316 samples of feed and feed raw materials from all over the world were analysed for contamination with aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins. Overall, 72% of the samples tested positive for at least one mycotoxin and 38% were found to be co-contaminated. Mycotoxin concentrations were generally low and the majority of the samples were compliant with the most stringent EU guidance values or maximum levels for mycotoxins in feed. However, in their present state these regulations do not address co-contamination and associated risks. Long-term trends are difficult to establish as strong yearly variations were observed regarding mycotoxin prevalence and contamination levels. In some cases unusual weather conditions can be linked with high observed mycotoxin loads. An exception to this rule is South-East Asia, where a steady increase of aflatoxin prevalence has been observed. The percentage of aflatoxin-positive samples in this region rose from 32% in 2005 to 71% in 2011. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.


Tola S.,Khon Kaen University | Bureau D.P.,University of Guelph | Hooft J.M.,University of Guelph | Beamish F.W.H.,Burapha University | And 4 more authors.
Toxins | Year: 2015

An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg−1) on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish). Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN) (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mg·kg−1). Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growthrate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusariummycotoxins (p< 0.05). Although growth depression was associated with feeding diets naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, especially DON, no biochemical and histopathological parameters measured in blood and liver appeared affected by Fusariummycotoxin concentrations of diets (p> 0.05). Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusariummycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


PubMed | University of Guelph, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Khon Kaen University, Biomin Singapore Pte. Ltd. and Burapha University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxins | Year: 2015

An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mgkg(-1)) on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish). Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN) (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet 3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mgkg(-1)). Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (p < 0.05). Although growth depression was associated with feeding diets naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, especially DON, no biochemical and histopathological parameters measured in blood and liver appeared affected by Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations of diets (p > 0.05). Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusarium mycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance.


PubMed | BIOMIN Singapore Pte Ltd.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxins | Year: 2012

Between January 2009 and December 2011, a total of 7049 corn, soybean/soybean meal, wheat, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and finished feed samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxins (Afla), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FUM) and ochratoxin A (OTA). Samples were sourced in the Americas, Europe and Asia. Afla, ZEN, DON, FUM and OTA were present respectively in 33%, 45%, 59% 64% and 28% of analyzed samples between 2009 and 2011. From the 23,781 mycotoxin analyzes performed, 81% were positive for at least one mycotoxin. Results of this survey are provided by calendar year, in order to potentially show different trends on mycotoxin occurrence in distinct years: by commodity type and within the same commodity, and by region, to potentially reveal differences in mycotoxin contamination in commodities sourced in diverse regions.


Hooft J.M.,University of Guelph | Elmor A.E.H.I.,University of Guelph | Encarnacao P.,Biomin Singapore Pte. Ltd. | Bureau D.P.,University of Guelph
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

Deoxynivalenol (DON), a Fusarium mycotoxin, is a major contaminant of cereal grains worldwide. The effects of feeding six diets containing low, graded levels of DON from two naturally contaminated sources of corn on the performance, health and apparent nutrient digestibility of rainbow trout were investigated. Feeding diets with increasing levels of DON (0.3, 0.8, 1.4, 2.0 and 2.6. ppm) for eight weeks to rainbow trout (initial weight = 24. g/fish) resulted in significant linear or quadratic decreases in feed intake, weight gain, growth rate (expressed as thermal-unit growth coefficient, TGC), feed efficiency (FE, gain:feed), retained nitrogen (RN), recovered energy (RE), energy retention efficiency (ERE), and nitrogen retention efficiency (NRE). Fish pair-fed the control diet (0.3. ppm DON) had significantly higher TGC (P < 0.01), FE (P < 0.0001) and whole body crude protein (CP) concentration (P < 0.01) compared to their counterparts fed the diet containing 2.6. ppm DON. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of CP and gross energy (GE) of fish fed diets containing 0.3 (control) to 2.0. ppm DON. In addition, some morphological changes of the liver were noted in fish fed the diet containing 2.6. ppm DON. These results suggest that, relative to other species, rainbow trout are extremely sensitive to DON from naturally contaminated grains and that the effects of DON on rainbow trout are not simply related to a reduction of feed intake, but rather, are due to metabolic effects. More research is required to identify the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of DON in rainbow trout. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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