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Herzogenburg, Austria

Giannenas I.,University of Thessaly | Triantafillou E.,Military Veterinary Training and Nursing Center | Stavrakakis S.,University of Thessaly | Margaroni M.,Hellenic Pasteur Institute | And 3 more authors.

The manipulation and control of fish health and production by natural substances has been identified as an important area for future developments in aquaculture. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of two phytogenic feed additives, one rich in carvacrol (CARV containing 12. g/kg carvacrol) and the other rich in thymol (THYM containing 6. g/kg thymol) on growth performance, gut microbiota and antioxidant status of rainbow trout (. Oncorhynchus mykiss) under commercial farming conditions. Groups of 30 sub-adult trout (113.0. g. ±. 10.4) were randomly allocated into 3 different treatments with three replicates each. The control group was fed a basal diet, while the other two groups were fed diets supplemented with the two phytogenic diets at the level of 1. g/kg. The fish were fed to apparent satiation for a period of 8. weeks. Body weight, body length and feed intake were recorded weekly. The intestinal bacteria populations (total aerobes, total anaerobes, . Lactobacilli spp., . Enterobacter spp., coliforms, . E. coli and . Aeromonas spp.) were enumerated by conventional microbiological techniques using selective agar media. Antioxidant status of fish was assayed for levels of glutathione reductase, glutathione-. S-transferase and malondialdehyde levels in fish fillet at day 0 and 5 after slaughter. Lysozyme, nitric oxide (NO), total complement concentrations and catalase activity were also evaluated in fish blood serum. Results showed that dietary phytogenic supplementation with both products improved (P. <. 0.05) feed efficiency compared to control diet, although, body weight gain was unaffected by phytogenic supplementation. Total anaerobe counts were lower in phytogenic fed fish for both products compared to control; and lactobacillus loads in THYM group compared to CARV and control; however, other bacteria loads were similar among dietary treatments. Both phytogenic inclusion decreased significantly (P. <. 0.05) malondialdehyde formation on day 5 of refrigerated storage compared to control fish. Activity of glutathione based enzymes at both time points were significantly high in both phytogenic supplemented groups compared to control (P. <. 0.05). Levels of lysozyme and total complement concentrations as well as catalase activity were higher in phytogenic supplemented groups, especially in CARV group compared to control. Thymol supplementation reduced NO serum levels significantly compared to control group. In conclusion, dietary phytogenic supplementation exerted a beneficial feed conversion effect and increased antioxidant protective capacities in the trout fillet at 5. days of refrigerated storage. It also modulated intestinal microbial communities disfavouring total anaerobes and affected some innate immunity parameters. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mountzouris K.C.,Agricultural University of Athens | Tsitrsikos P.,Agricultural University of Athens | Palamidi I.,Agricultural University of Athens | Arvaniti A.,Agricultural University of Athens | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of inclusion levels of a 5-bacterial species probiotic in broiler nutrition. Five hundred twenty-five 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were allocated in 5 experimental treatments for 6 wk. The experimental treatments received a corn-soybean coccidiostat-free basal diet and depending on the addition were labeled as follows: no addition (C), 108 cfu probiotic/kg of diet (P1), 109 cfu probiotic/kg of diet (P2), 1010 cfu probiotic/kg of diet (P3), and 2.5 mg of avilamycin/kg of diet (A). Each treatment had 3 replicates of 35 broilers each. Treatment effects on broiler growth performance and biomarkers such as ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility, plasma Ig concentration, and cecal micro-flora composition were determined. Differences among treatments were considered significant when P ≤ 0.05. Overall BW gain was significantly higher in treatment P1 (2,293 g) compared with P2 (2,163 g), C (2,165 g), and P3 (2,167 g), with A (2,230 g) being intermediate and not different from P1. Overall feed conversion ratio values were similar and significantly better for P1 (1.80) and A (1.80) compared with P2 (1.87), C (1.89), and P3 (1.92). Ileal apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of CP and ether extract were higher in A. Generally, treatments A and P1 showed an improved total tract ADC for DM, organic matter, ash, ether extract, and AMEn values. The total tract ADC of CP was higher in P1, C, and P2. There were no differences between treatments regarding plasma Ig in 14-and 42-d-old broilers. Treatments P2 and P3 were effective at beneficially modulating cecal microflora composition. In particular, the lower cecal coliform concentration (log cfu/g of wet digesta) was seen in P2 (6.12) and P3 (4.90) in 14-and 42-d-old broilers, respectively, whereas at 42 d, P3 and P2 had the highest Bifido-bacterium (8.31; 8.08) and Lactobacillus concentrations (8.20; 7.86), respectively. It is concluded that probiotic inclusion level had a significant effect on broiler growth responses, nutrient ADC, AMEn, and cecal microflora composition. © 2010 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Weissenbacher-Lang C.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Voglmayr T.,Traunkreis VetClinic | Waxenecker F.,Biomin GmbH | Hofstetter U.,Biomin GmbH | And 7 more authors.
Veterinary Journal

The aim of this study was to identify the causative factors of porcine ear necrosis syndrome (PENS) in 72 pigs, 5.5-10. weeks in age housed on nine farms. Biopsy samples of ear pinnae were collected from all piglets for bacteriology, histopathology and in situ hybridization for porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). At the same time, serum samples were taken for serological analysis and viral PCR, and feed was sampled for mycotoxin analysis.The initial lesion of PENS seemed to be a focal epidermal necrosis. Streptococci were isolated from 44 and staphylococci from 36 pinnae. PCV2 could not be detected by in situ hybridization or qPCR. Seven piglets were positive for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and one for Mycoplasma suis. One piglet had antibodies against Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. No infectious agents were found in 15 samples. Positive virology and parasitology were often found alongside positive bacteriology. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and ergot alkaloids were detected in feed. The findings suggest that PENS is multifactorial in origin and that although infectious agents can be involved in the development of the syndrome they are not the exclusive triggering factor. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lee J.T.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Jessen K.A.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Beltran R.,Biomin GmbH | Starkl V.,Biomin GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary inclusion of Mycofix Select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) on discrete egg parameters and quality characteristics of hens fed mycotoxin-contaminated diets (aflatoxin; AFLA) and deoxynivalenol (DON)) during a 10-wk trial. A 4 × 2 factorial design was used with 4 contamination levels: control, low (0.5 mg/kg of AFLA + 1.0 mg/kg of DON), medium (1.5 mg/kg of AFLA + 1.5 mg/kg of DON), and high (2.0 mg/kg of AFLA + 2.0 mg/kg of DON) with or without the inclusion of mycotoxin deactivating compound. Three hundred and eighty-four 25-wk-old laying hens were housed 3 per cage. Birds were fed contaminated diets for a 6-wk phase of toxin administration followed by a 4-wk recovery phase, when all birds were fed mycotoxin-free diets. Parameters evaluated included egg weight, Haugh unit value, specific gravity, eggshell thickness, egg shape index, and relative albumen and yolk weights. Albumen height and Haugh unit value were depressed (P < 0.05) at the high mycotoxin level 2 wk postinclusion. Egg weight was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the high toxins level by the third week of toxin administration and remained throughout the study during toxin administration. Egg shape index indicated a variation (P < 0.05) in shape with all toxin levels compared with the control. Relative yolk weight was decreased (P < 0.05) by the high toxin level. An interaction existed between the deactivating compound inclusion and toxins level with regard to specific gravity. Following the toxin phase, the deactivating compound inclusion increased (P < 0.05) egg specific gravity in the control and low toxin groups whereas a decrease (P < 0.05) was observed at the high toxin level. These data indicate that mycotoxins present in feed can reduce egg quality, size, yolk weight, and alter egg shape and that inclusion of a mycotoxin deactivating compound can ameliorate some of the negative effects of mycotoxin consumption. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Giannenas I.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Karamaligas I.,University of Thessaly | Margaroni M.,Hellenic Pasteur Institute | Pappas I.,University of Thessaly | And 3 more authors.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

Dietary supplementation with a multi-strain probiotic containing Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus reuteri has been examined for its effects on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, non-specific immune response and antioxidant status of rainbow trout. Three groups of sub-adult trout were stocked into experimental tanks. A commercial diet was used as control, while the other two groups received diets supplemented with the multi-strain probiotic at levels of 1 and 5 g kg−1 diet. The fish were fed to apparent satiation three times daily for 8 weeks. Dietary probiotic at 1 g kg−1 diet improved (P < 0.05) growth and feed efficiency compared to control diet. Lactic acid bacteria loads were higher in probiotic fed fish at both inclusion levels compared to control; however, Enterobacteriaceae, Coliforms and Aeromonas spp. were similar between groups. Dietary probiotics decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde formation on day 0 compared to control fish but not on day 5 of storage. Probiotics also increased (P < 0.05) the activity of glutathione-based enzymes. Serum lysozyme levels were similar among dietary treatments. Probiotic supplementation at 1 g kg−1 diet reduced serum nitric oxide levels compared to control. In conclusion, dietary probiotics at the level of 1 g kg−1 of diet exerted both a growth promoting and antioxidant protective activity. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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