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Cambridge, MA, United States

Bao J.,Nagoya University | Yang Z.,Soochow University of China | Nakajima M.,Nagoya University | Shen Y.,University of Hong Kong | And 5 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Robotics

This paper introduces a novel catalytic mobile micro/nanorobot made only of platinum that realizes nanometer locomotion in hydrogen peroxide solution. The innovative mechanism and principle of the nanorobot are presented. A simple and effective fabrication process by focused ion beam and a stable manipulation method of the nanorobot are demonstrated. The nanorobot can steer or navigate by its finely designed geometry, and keep a stable rotational motion rather than arbitrary and uncertain movement. This paper evaluates the influence of some critical factors on the movement of the nanorobot, such as the concentration and temperature of the hydrogen peroxide solution, and the geometry of a nanorobot. The control of the nanorobot's movement can be realized based on the result of this evaluation. Compared with previous studies, this catalytic platinum nanorobot realizes bidirectional rather than unidirectional movement. The Langevin equation is used to describe the dynamic model of the platinum nanorobot. © 2013 IEEE. Source

Freedman D.S.,Boston University | Cohen H.I.,Boston University | Deligeorges S.,Biomimetic Systems | Karl C.,Intel Corporation | Hubbard A.E.,Boston University
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems

An analog inner hair cell and auditory nerve circuit using a dual AGC model has been implemented using 0.35 micron mixed-signal technology. A fully-differential current-mode architecture is used and the ability to correct channel mismatch is evaluated with matched layouts as well as with digital current tuning. The Meddis test paradigm is used to examine the analog implementation's auditory processing capabilities and investigate the circuit's ability to correct DC mismatch. The correction techniques used demonstrate the analog inner hair cell and auditory nerve circuit's potential use in low-power, multiple-sensor analog biomimetic systems with highly reproducible signal processing blocks on a single massively parallel integrated circuit. © 2014 IEEE. Source

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.31K | Year: 2006

Biomimetic Systems will develop and test a simulated system to localize and identify target sound sources including pistol, shotgun, and rifle fire. The software simulation will be a behavioral model of a proposed hardware system for Phase II development. Our system extracts novel feature sets generated by a biomimetic processor based on human hearing, on which we train and evaluate a proprietary classifier algorithm. We propose to apply this approach to acoustic data collected in Phase 1. Field data will be collected using a vehicle mounted acoustic sensor array with live gunfire as well as samples of urban ambient noise, wind noise, and vehicle generated noise. Urban weapon fire scenarios with stationary and moving vehicles will be generated synthetically using collected field data to create test signals for the detection and localization algorithms. We will analyze the simulation results to determine system efficacy and identify possible failure modes. We anticipate based on prior work to localize sounds within 10 ms with accuracy on the order of 2 degrees in azimuth and 5 degrees in elevation. BENEFITS: The proposed technology will form the basis for a family of commercial products aimed at the civilian law enforcement and security markets. Acoustic sensing systems could be used by first responders to detect, classify and locate sources of gunfire in urban locations. Vulnerable facilities, like oil terminals, power plants, pipelines, powerlines, communications centers and the like could be continuously monitored for sound patterns linked to suspicious activities. Non-security applications are also envisioned in the automotive, aerospace, forestry and consumer markets.

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 128.00K | Year: 2009

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The goal of this project is to develop a sonar system that can be used as a mobility aid by the visually impaired. The system will consist of an ultrasonic acoustic source using a waveform that is designed to optimize target discrimination and a pair of miniature microphones that are mounted near the ears to create natural interaural level and timing differences. A heterodyning technique will be used to shift the signals received by the microphones down to the audible range after which it will be presented to the user through open-canal earphones. The acoustic source and microphone arrays will be mounted on the users head so that they can scan their environment with the sonar system using natural head movements. The specific aims of this Phase I STTR proposal include constructing a semi-portable prototype and a series of experiments designed to demonstrate the usefulness of the device. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This research will lead to a new mobility aid for the visually impaired. It will also help shed light on how visually impaired subjects might be taught use unaided echolocation to navigate through complex environments.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.89M | Year: 2008

Biomimetic technology, a processing method based on biological neural systems, offers an approach to acoustic processing which is noise and reverberation tolerant, acquires targets quickly, localizes accurately, and is well suited for urban theaters of operation. The Phase I project demonstrated the feasibility of the applied technology for identification and localization of acoustic targets such as gunfire. As shown in Phase I, the technology functions on small baselines allowing for portable, compact, and covert sensor arrays. The core technology is flexible and has applications from vehicle mounted sniper detectors, to mobile robotics, to a wide range of unattended ground sensors or perimeter security devices. The Phase II project will advance the core technology by enhancing the core processing algorithms for increased accuracy of identification and localization of targets, including weapons and breaching events; extending algorithms for voice-cueing to facilitate human–robot interaction; and redesigning prototype systems with lower cost, low power, higher efficiency, and readily manufacturable design.

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