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San Donato di Ninea, Italy

De Vecchi E.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute | Sitia S.,SantAnna Clinic | Romano C.L.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute | Ricci C.,Clinical Epidemiology and Biometry Unit | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2013

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common cause of bacteraemia in the elderly and are associated with a high probability of hospitalization. Despite the impact of UTIs on health status and quality of life, a limited number of studies have evaluated their aetiology in this population. This study aimed to evaluate the microbial aetiology and pattern of susceptibility of bacteria causing UTIs in the elderly. For this purpose, a retrospective cohort study of elderly residents (n=472, aged >65 years) in 14 nursing homes in Milan (Italy) and its province was performed. Globally, 393 micro-organisms from 328 samples were isolated: Escherichia coli was the most prevalent (44.8 %), followed by Proteus mirabilis (20.4 %), Providencia spp. (8.9 %), Klebsiella spp. (6.4 %) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.6 %). Enterococci were the most frequently isolated Grampositive organisms (7.4 %). Almost all Enterobacteriaceae were susceptible to nitrofurantoin, carbapenems and amikacin. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases were detected in 42.1 % of isolates. The most active antibiotics against P. aeruginosa were colistin, amikacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam. All Gram-positive organisms were susceptible to glycopeptides and linezolid, and 90 % were susceptible to nitrofurantoin. Fluoroquinolones showed a limited activity against all the tested micro-organisms. Escherichia coli remains the major micro-organism responsible for UTIs in older people, although to a lesser extent than in a younger population. The high rates of resistance observed in this study make careful use of antibiotics advisable to limit further development of resistance. © 2013 SGM.

Drago L.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute | Drago L.,University of Milan | Mattina R.,University of Milan | Legnani D.,University of Milan | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology | Year: 2011

The ability of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ceftriaxone to interfere on biofilm produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was evaluated. The effects of antibiotics were evaluated on formation of biofilm (at 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 X MIC) and on preformed biofilm (at epithelial lining fluid peak concentrations) by means of a spectrophotometric method. Levofloxacin was the most active compound followed by ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin and amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid and ceftriaxone. Levofloxacin may contribute to clear the reservoir of pathogens involved in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, thus leading to decreased occurrence of acute exacerbations. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s.

Turiel M.,University of Milan | Sitia S.,University of Milan | Cicala S.,University of Milan | Magagnin V.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopedic Institute | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2011

Background: Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) assisted with a robotic driven gait orthosis (DGO) is an emerging tool in rehabilitating patients with lost sensorimotor function. Few information about the effects of BWSTT on cardiovascular system are available. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of BWSTT on: 1) left ventricular (LV) systo-diastolic function; 2) coronary flow reserve (CFR); 3) endothelial function in patients with lost sensorimotor function due to neurologic lesions. Methods: Fourteen adults (males 10, age 50.6 ± 17.1 years) with motor incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCI) due to trauma or spondylotic diseases underwent standard echocardiographic examination, non invasive assessment of CFR by dipyridamole stress echo and determination of plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels at baseline and after 6 weeks of BWSTT. Results: At post training evaluation we observed lower LV end-diastolic (P = 0.0164) and end-systolic volumes (P = 0.0029) with increased ejection fraction (EF) (P = 0.0266). We also observed a LV interventricular septum (IVS) (P = 0.00469) increase. At the same time, we detected an improvement of LV diastolic function as witnessed by the reduction of isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) (P = 0.0404) and deceleration time (DT) (P = 0.0405) with an increased E/A ratio (P = 0.0040). Improved CFR (P = 0.020) and reduced plasma ADMA levels (P = 0.0005) have been observed too, in association with a reduction of the inflammatory status (C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = 0.0022) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (P = 0.0005)). Conclusion: For the first time, this study demonstrated that 6 weeks of BWSTT improved not only the sensorimotor function but also systo-diastolic LV function, CFR and endothelial dysfunction associated with a reduction of the inflammatory status in patients with incomplete SCI. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Turiel M.,University of Milan | Tomasoni L.,University of Milan | Sitia S.,University of Milan | Cicala S.,University of Milan | And 7 more authors.
Cardiovascular Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and impaired endothelial function early after the onset of the disease and cardiovascular (CV) disease represents one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. It is well known that disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are able to improve the course of the disease and the quality of life of these patients, but little is known about the effects of DMARDs on CV risk and endothelial dysfunction. Our goal was to examine the effects of long-term therapy with DMARDs on endothelial function and disease activity in early RA (ERA). Twenty-five ERA patients (mean age 52 ± 14.6 years, disease duration 6.24 ± 4.10 months) without evidence of CV involvement were evaluated for disease activity score (DAS-28), 2D-echo derived coronary flow reserve (CFR), common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels at baseline and after 18 months of treatment with DMARDs (10 patients with methotrexate and 10 with adalimumab). DMARDs significantly reduced DAS-28 (6.0 ± 0.8 vs. 2.0 ± 0.7; P < 0.0001) and improved CFR (2.4 ± 0.2 vs. 2.7 ± 0.5; P < 0.01). Common carotid IMT and plasma ADMA levels did not show significant changes. The present study shows that DMARDs, beyond the well known antiphlogistic effects, are able to improve coronary microcirculation without a direct effect on IMT and ADMA, clinical markers of atherosclerosis. Treatment strategies in ERA patients with high inflammatory activity must be monitored to identify beneficial effects on preclinical markers of vascular function. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Sansone V.A.,University of Milan | Ricci C.,Clinical Epidemiology and Biometry Unit | Montanari M.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Apolone G.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | And 20 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2012

Background and purpose: Fatigue and pain have been previously shown to be important determinants for decreasing quality of life (QoL) in one report in patients with non-dystrophic myotonia. The aims of our study were to assess QoL in skeletal muscle channelopathies (SMC) using INQoL (individualized QoL) and SF-36 questionnaires. Methods: We administered INQoL and SF-36 to 66 Italian patients with SMC (26: periodic paralysis, 36: myotonia congenita and 4: Andersen-Tawil) and compared the results in 422 patients with myotonic dystrophies (DM1: 382; and DM2: 40). Results: (i) INQoL index in SMC is similar to that in DMs (P = 0.79). (ii) Patients with myotonia congenita have the worst perception of QoL. (iii) Myotonia has the most detrimental effect on patients with myotonia congenita, followed by patients with DM2 and then by patients with DM1 and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. (iv) Pain is a significant complaint in patients with myotonia congenita, hypokalemic periodic paralysis and DM2 but not in DM1. (v) Fatigue has a similar detrimental effect on all patient groups except for patients with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in whom muscle weakness and myotonia more than fatigue affect QoL perception. (vi) Muscle symptoms considered in INQoL correlate with physical symptoms assessed by SF-36 (R from -0.34 to -0.76). Conclusions: QoL perception in patients with SMC is similar to that of patients with DMs, chronic multisystem disabling conditions. Our results provide information to target treatment and health care of these patients. The sensitivity of INQoL to changes in QoL in the SMC needs to be further explored in longitudinal studies. © 2012 EFNS.

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