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Gleadall A.,University of Leicester | Pan J.,University of Leicester | Kruft M.-A.,Purac Biomaterials | Kellomaki M.,BioMediTech
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2014

This paper presents an understanding of how initial molecular weight and initial monomer fraction affect the degradation of bioresorbable polymers in terms of the underlying hydrolysis mechanisms. A mathematical model was used to analyse the effects of initial molecular weight for various hydrolysis mechanisms including noncatalytic random scission, autocatalytic random scission, noncatalytic end scission or autocatalytic end scission. Different behaviours were identified to relate initial molecular weight to the molecular weight half-life and to the time until the onset of mass loss. The behaviours were validated by fitting the model to experimental data for molecular weight reduction and mass loss of samples with different initial molecular weights. Several publications that consider initial molecular weight were reviewed. The effect of residual monomer on degradation was also analysed, and shown to accelerate the reduction of molecular weight and mass loss. An inverse square root law relationship was found between molecular weight half-life and initial monomer fraction for autocatalytic hydrolysis. The relationship was tested by fitting the model to experimental data with various residual monomer contents. © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The strength retention characteristics of oriented semicrystalline polylactides were monitored during hydrolytic degradation in vitro. The effects of the polymer type, the material's initial inherent viscosity (iv), the sample diameter and the residual monomer content on strength retention were analyzed. The analyzed polylactides had similar, but not identical, strength retention characteristics. It was concluded that a higher degree of initial crystallinity was a major variable determining the earlier and more profound strength loss of PLLA than 96L/4D PLA and 80L/20 D,L PLA. Samples with a higher initial iv were found to have a longer strength retention time than lower iv samples. Size-dependency was observed, as the strength retention time was shorter for the smaller diameter samples. This size-dependency was caused by faster iv decay. The amount of residual monomer content had a remarkable impact on strength retention. Neither the sample diameter, initial iv or residual monomer content were found to have an effect on the iv range in which there was a rapid decline in strength properties. Therefore, it was concluded that the inherent viscosity and/or molecular weight of oriented PLLA, 96L/4D PLA and 80L/20 D,L PLA is a major variable determining the strength retention of these materials.

Huttunen M.,BioMediTech | Huttunen M.,Tampere University of Technology
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine | Year: 2013

This study focuses on analyzing the effects of several factors on the rate of decay of inherent viscosity (iv) during hydrolytic degradation. The analysis was made for oriented PLLA, 96L/4D PLA and 80L/20D,L PLA. The analyzed polymers were found to have identical rate of iv loss (P<0.05), given that the materials have otherwise similar initial material properties. The effect of the postprocessing residual monomer was dose dependent, i.e. the higher the monomer content the faster the degradation (P<0.05). Samples with a smaller diameter (1.1 mm) were found to have a faster rate of iv loss than the samples with a larger diameter (4 mm) (P<0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis was used to create a five-component linear model to predict changes in the materials' inherent viscosity. This model yielded accurate predictions during the initial stages of the hydrolytic degradation process where the iv loss was virtually linear. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

Subrizi A.,University of Helsinki | Hiidenmaa H.,University of Tampere | Ilmarinen T.,University of Tampere | Nymark S.,BioMediTech | And 6 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2012

The in vitro generation of a functional retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) for therapeutic applications requires a limitless source of RPE cells and a supporting scaffold, which improves cell survival and promotes the acquisition of the RPE phenotype. We successfully differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) toward RPE on a transplantable, biopolymer coated polyimide (PI) membrane. We studied various membrane coatings of which several lead to the generation of a tight and highly polarized epithelium having typical characteristics and functions of human RPE. The cells established a distinctive hexagonal, cobblestone morphology with strong pigmentation, expressed RPE specific genes and proteins, and phagocytosed photoreceptor outer segments (POS) after co-culture with rat retinal explants. The barrier function of hESC-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) monolayers was confirmed by transepithelial electrical resistance and permeability measurements. In conclusion, we show that the PI biomembrane is a suitable scaffold for hESC-RPE tissue engineering. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kapyla E.,Tampere University of Technology | Aydogan D.B.,Tampere University of Technology | Virjula S.,Tampere University of Technology | Virjula S.,University of Tampere | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering | Year: 2012

Traditional scaffold fabrication methods used in tissue engineering enable only limited control over essential parameters such as porosity, pore size and pore interconnectivity. In this study, we designed and fabricated five different types of three-dimensionally interconnected, highly porous scaffolds with precise control over the scaffold characteristics. We used two-photon polymerization (2PP) with a commercial polymer-ceramic material (Ormocomp®) for scaffold fabrication. Also for the first time, we analyzed the 2PP fabrication accuracy with respect to scaffold design parameters. Our results showed that the porosity values decreased up to 13% compared to the design specifications due to the fabrication process and the shrinkage of the material. Finally, we showed that our scaffolds supported human adipose stem cell adhesion and proliferation in a six day culture. By precise tuning of scaffold parameters, our design and fabrication method provides a novel approach for studying the effect of scaffold architecture on cell behavior in vitro. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

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