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Acharya U.R.,Ngee Ann Polytechnic | Sree S.V.,Nanyang Technological University | Suri J.S.,Global Biomedical Technologies Inc. | Suri J.S.,Idaho State University
International Journal of Neural Systems | Year: 2011

The unpredictability of the occurrence of epileptic seizures makes it difficult to detect and treat this condition effectively. An automatic system that characterizes epileptic activities in EEG signals would allow patients or the people near them to take appropriate precautions, would allow clinicians to better manage the condition, and could provide more insight into these phenomena thereby revealing important clinical information. Various methods have been proposed to detect epileptic activity in EEG recordings. Because of the nonlinear and dynamic nature of EEG signals, the use of nonlinear Higher Order Spectra (HOS) features is a seemingly promising approach. This paper presents the methodology employed to extract HOS features (specifically, cumulants) from normal, interictal, and epileptic EEG segments and to use significant features in classifiers for the detection of these three classes. In this work, 300 sets of EEG data belonging to the three classes were used for feature extraction and classifier development and evaluation. The results show that the HOS based measures have unique ranges for the different classes with high confidence level (p-value < 0.0001). On evaluating several classifiers with the significant features, it was observed that the Support Vector Machine (SVM) presented a high detection accuracy of 98.5% thereby establishing the possibility of effective EEG segment classification using the proposed technique. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Molinari F.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Pattichis C.S.,University of Cyprus | Zeng G.,Mayo Medical School | Saba L.,University of Cagliari | And 5 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2012

The aim of this paper is to describe a novel and completely automated technique for carotid artery (CA) recognition, far (distal) wall segmentation, and intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement, which is a strong clinical tool for risk assessment for cardiovascular diseases. The architecture of completely automated multiresolution edge snapper (CAMES) consists of the following two stages: 1) automated CA recognition based on a combination of scale-space and statistical classification in a multiresolution framework and 2) automated segmentation of lumen-intima (LI) and media-adventitia (MA) interfaces for the far (distal) wall and IMT measurement. Our database of 365 B-mode longitudinal carotid images is taken from four different institutions covering different ethnic backgrounds. The ground-truth (GT) database was the average manual segmentation from three clinical experts. The mean distance ± standard deviation of CAMES with respect to GT profiles for LI and MA interfaces were 0.081 ± 0.099 and 0.082 ± 0.197 mm, respectively. The IMT measurement error between CAMES and GT was 0.078 ± 0.112 mm. CAMES was benchmarked against a previously developed automated technique based on an integrated approach using feature-based extraction and classifier (CALEX). Although CAMES underestimated the IMT value, it had shown a strong improvement in segmentation errors against CALEX for LI and MA interfaces by 8% and 42%, respectively. The overall IMT measurement bias for CAMES improved by 36% against CALEX. Finally, this paper demonstrated that the figure-of-merit of CAMES was 95.8% compared with 87.4% for CALEX. The combination of multiresolution CA recognition and far-wall segmentation led to an automated, low-complexity, real-time, and accurate technique for carotid IMT measurement. Validation on a multiethnic/multi-institutional data set demonstrated the robustness of the technique, which can constitute a clinically valid IMT measurement for assistance in atherosclerosis disease management. © 2011 IEEE.

Acharya U.R.,Ngee Ann Polytechnic | Sree S.V.,Global Biomedical Technologies Inc. | Ang P.C.A.,Ngee Ann Polytechnic | Yanti R.,Ngee Ann Polytechnic | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Neural Systems | Year: 2012

Epilepsy, a neurological disorder, is characterized by the recurrence of seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which are used to detect the presence of seizures, are non-linear and dynamic in nature. Visual inspection of the EEG signals for detection of normal, interictal, and ictal activities is a strenuous and time-consuming task due to the huge volumes of EEG segments that have to be studied. Therefore, non-linear methods are being widely used to study EEG signals for the automatic monitoring of epileptic activities. The aim of our work is to develop a Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) technique with minimal pre-processing steps that can classify all the three classes of EEG segments, namely normal, interictal, and ictal, using a small number of highly discriminating non-linear features in simple classifiers. To evaluate the technique, segments of normal, interictal, and ictal EEG segments (100 segments in each class) were used. Non-linear features based on the Higher Order Spectra (HOS), two entropies, namely the Approximation Entropy (ApEn) and the Sample Entropy (SampEn), and Fractal Dimension and Hurst Exponent were extracted from the segments. Significant features were selected using the ANOVA test. After evaluating the performance of six classifiers (Decision Tree, Fuzzy Sugeno Classifier, Gaussian Mixture Model, K-Nearest Neighbor, Support Vector Machine, and Radial Basis Probabilistic Neural Network) using a combination of the selected features, we found that using a set of all the selected six features in the Fuzzy classifier resulted in 99.7% classification accuracy. We have demonstrated that our technique is capable of achieving high accuracy using a small number of features that accurately capture the subtle differences in the three different types of EEG (normal, interictal, and ictal) segments. The technique can be easily written as a software application and used by medical professionals without any extensive training and cost. Such software can evolve into an automatic seizure monitoring application in the near future and can aid the doctors in providing better and timely care for the patients suffering from epilepsy. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Mookiah M.R.K.,Ngee Ann Polytechnic | Rajendra Acharya U.,Ngee Ann Polytechnic | Lim C.M.,Ngee Ann Polytechnic | Petznick A.,Singapore Eye Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2012

Eye images provide an insight into important parts of the visual system, and also indicate the health of the entire human body. Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness. It is a disease in which fluid pressure in the eye increases gradually, damaging the optic nerve and causing vision loss. Robust mass screening may help to extend the symptom-free life for the affected patients. The retinal optic nerve fiber layer can be assessed using optical coherence tomography, scanning laser polarimetry (SLP), and Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT) scanning methods. These methods are expensive and hence a novel low cost automated glaucoma diagnosis system using digital fundus images is proposed. The paper discusses the system for the automated identification of normal and glaucoma classes using Higher Order Spectra (HOS) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) features. The extracted features are fed to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with linear, polynomial order 1, 2, 3 and Radial Basis Function (RBF) to select the best kernel function for automated decision making. In this work, SVM classifier with kernel function of polynomial order 2 was able to identify the glaucoma and normal images automatically with an accuracy of 95%, sensitivity and specificity of 93.33% and 96.67% respectively. Finally, we have proposed a novel integrated index called Glaucoma Risk Index (GRI) which is made up of HOS and DWT features, to diagnose the unknown class using a single feature. We hope that this GRI will aid clinicians to make a faster glaucoma diagnosis during the mass screening of normal/glaucoma images. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Global Biomedical Technologies Inc. | Date: 2013-07-12

In one embodiment, a selectively-releasable adhesive includes a base adhesive compound and a releasing compound that is blended with the base adhesive compound, the releasing compound being capable of decreasing the adhesive strength of the base adhesive compound when a releasing agent is applied to the selectively-releasable adhesive.

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