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Kansas City, MO, United States

Kawase T.,Niigata University | Kawase T.,The Nippon Dental University | Hayama K.,The Nippon Dental University | Tsuchimochi M.,The Nippon Dental University | And 5 more authors.
Biopreservation and Biobanking | Year: 2016

In preparing cell-based products for regenerative therapy, cell quality should be strictly controlled. Methodologies for evaluating cell viability, identity, and purity are established and used routinely, whereas current methodologies for evaluating cell safety, particularly genetic integrity or tumorigenicity, are time-consuming and relatively insensitive. As part of developing a more practical screening system, the authors previously demonstrated that γ-H2AX and p53 were useful markers for evaluating the history of DNA damage. To validate these markers further and develop a more quantitative methodology, single cell-based expression of these markers and two additional candidates have now been examined using flow cytometry (FCM). FCM analysis and immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that γ-ray-irradiation suppressed proliferation, enlarged cells, and cell nuclei, and immediately upregulated γ-H2AX and p21waf1 in large numbers of cells for up to 12 days. Gamma-H2AX foci were formed in the nuclei of many affected cells. An initial sharp increase in p53 expression declined slowly over 12 days, while Rb expression increased linearly. The present findings suggest that this high-throughput, cell-based, combinational evaluation of protein markers and cell size enables a small number of cells with a history of DNA damage to be detected quickly and routinely from within a very large cell population. Using this screening methodology will improve the ability to verify the quality of cell-based products used in regenerative therapy. © Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016.

Uematsu K.,Niigata University | Kawase T.,Niigata University | Nagata M.,Niigata University | Suzuki K.,Niigata University | And 4 more authors.
Stem Cell Research | Year: 2013

We have previously demonstrated that multilayered periosteal sheets prepared from the explant culture of alveolar periosteum serve as a promising osteogenic grafting material in periodontal tissue regeneration. For the preparation of more potent periosteal sheets, we examined the applicability of stem-cell culture media. Compared to the control medium (Medium 199. +. 10% FBS), periosteal sheets expanded with MesenPRO-RSTM medium exhibited these features: Cells grew three-dimensionally and deposited collagen in the extracellular spaces to form thicker multilayers of cells. Chondrocytic markers were not significantly upregulated. Contractile force was generated in proportion with the increased thickness of the periosteal sheets and the formation of cytoplasmic α-smooth muscle actin fibers. However, myofibroblastic markers were not significantly upregulated. The surface marker CD146 was substantially upregulated, while both CD73 and CD105 were downregulated. Alkaline phosphatase, a representative osteoblastic marker, was not upregulated by osteogenic induction. However, these expanded periosteal sheets exhibited substantially stronger osteogenic differentiation when implanted in nude mice. Therefore, despite our reservations, MesenPRO medium effectively expanded the cells contained in periosteal sheets to promote the formation of thicker multilayers of cells in vitro, and these enhanced periosteal sheets expressed increased osteogenic potential at implantation sites in vivo. In conjunction with data indicating that CD146-positive cells were notably expanded and the recently proposed concept that CD146 is a marker for osteogenic progenitor cells found in the bone marrow stroma, our findings suggest that MesenPRO medium improves the preparation of highly osteogenic periosteal sheets suitable for clinical application largely through the induction of CD146-positive cells. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Horimizu M.,Niigata University | Kawase T.,Niigata University | Tanaka T.,Niigata University | Okuda K.,Niigata University | And 3 more authors.
Micron | Year: 2013

We previously demonstrated that thicker periosteal sheets with enhanced cell layering maintain their component cells at relatively immature stages of differentiation but express a high in vivo osteogenic potential. As it has been recently proposed that stiff scaffolds provide a mechanical cue to various cell types that promotes differentiation, we postulated that the maintenance of immature cells in our periosteal sheets is due to the mechanical stiffness of the multilayered-cell architecture. To demonstrate the biomechanical characteristics of our periosteal sheets, we have determined their stiffnesses with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and evaluated the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components specifically by both immunocytochemistry and a complementary DNA microarray technology. Compared to osteoblastic Saos2 cells, the cytoskeletal fibers were developed more in the periosteal cells, but the periosteal cells in monolayer culture developed before either the cells in the peripheral or central regions of the periosteal sheets developed. However, the nanoindentation by AFM distinguished the central region from the peripheral region. The peak stiffness values of cells were ordered as follows: tissue culture polystyrene (1.66. GPa). ⋙. dispersed (9.99. kPa). >. central region (5.20. kPa). >. peripheral regions (3.67. kPa). Similarly, the degree of development of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) filaments within cells was dispersed. >. central region. >. peripheral region. In conjunction with the abundantly deposited ECM in the periosteal sheets, these findings suggest that the order of cell stiffness may depend on the integration of the stiffness of individual ECM components and the extent of cytoskeletal fiber formation. Because recently published data have demonstrated that the optimal stiffness for osteogenic differentiation is 25-40. kPa, it is plausible that the periosteal cells residing in the less-stiff multilayer regions could be maintained at relatively immature stages under the control of the stem-cell medium in vitro but start differentiating when exposed to the proper stiffness upon release from the culture conditions at the implantation site. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Kawase T.,Niigata University | Uematsu K.,Niigata University | Kamiya M.,Niigata University | Nagata M.,Niigata University | And 4 more authors.
Cytotherapy | Year: 2014

Background aims: Cultured human periosteal sheets more effectively function as an osteogenic grafting material at implantation sites than do dispersed periosteal cells. Because adherent cell growth and differentiation are regulated by cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix contacts, we hypothesized that this advantage is a result of the unique cell adhesion pattern formed by their multiple cell layers and abundant extracellular matrix. To test this hypothesis, we prepared three distinct forms ofperiosteal cell cultures: three-dimensional cell-multilayered periosteal sheets, two-dimensional dispersed cell cultures, andthree-dimensional hybrid mock-ups of cells dispersed onto collagen sponges. Methods: Periosteal cells were obtained from human alveolar bone. Cell adhesion and extracellular matrix molecules were quantitatively determined at the messenger RNA and protein levels by means of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that regardless of culture media α1 integrin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, fibronectin and collagen type 1 were substantially upregulated, whereas CD44 was strongly downregulated in periosteal sheets compared with dispersed cell monolayers. With increased thickness, stem cell medium upregulated several integrins (β1, α1 and α4), CD146, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, fibronectin and collagen type 1 in the periosteal sheets. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the active configuration of β1 integrin was substantially downregulated in the stem cell medium-expanded cell cultures. The cell adhesion pattern found in the mock-up cultures was almost identical to that of genuine periosteal sheets. Conclusions: Integrin α1β1 and CD44 function as the main cell adhesion molecule in highly cell-multilayered periosteal sheets and dispersed cells, respectively. This difference may account for the more potent osteogenic activity shown by the thicker periosteal sheets. © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy.

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