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Marhuenda C.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Barcelo C.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Fuentes I.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Guillen G.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 10 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Parapneumonic empyema (PPE) is a frequent complication of acute bacterial pneumonia in children. There is limited evidence regarding the optimal treatment of this condition. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of drainage plus urokinase versus video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in the treatment of PPE in childhood. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, multicenter clinical trial enrolled patients aged <15 years and hospitalized with septated PPE. Study patients were randomized to receive urokinase or thoracoscopy. The main outcome variable was the length of hospital stay after treatment. The secondary outcomes were total length of hospital stay, number of days with the chest drain, number of days with fever, and treatment failures. The trial was approved by the ethics committees of all the participating hospitals. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients were randomized to treatment and analyzed; 53 were treated with thoracoscopy and 50 with urokinase. There were no differences in demographic characteristics or in the main baseline characteristics between the 2 groups. No statistically significant differences were found between thoracoscopy and urokinase in the median postoperative stay (10 vs 9 days), median hospital stay (14 vs 13 days), or days febrile after treatment (4 vs 6 days). A second intervention was required in 15% of children in the thoracoscopy group versus 10% in the urokinase group (P = .47). CONCLUSIONS: Drainage plus urokinase instillation is as effective as video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery as first-line treatment of septated PPE in children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


Pineiro L.,Hospital Donostia | Vicente D.,Hospital Donostia | Vicente D.,Biomedical Research Center Network for Respiratory Diseases | Montes M.,Hospital Donostia | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2010

Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are RNA viruses related to neonatal sepsis, meningoencephalitis and other infections in young children. Little clinical and epidemiological information is available on these viruses. HPeVs were sought in cerebrospinal fluid from 397 infants aged less than 12 months from whom a sample was obtained to exclude meningitis or encephalitis from 2006 to 2009. HPeV infections were also tested in stool samples from 271 children aged less than 3 years old with gastroenteritis from November 2008 to March 2009. HPeV detection was by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (region 5′UTR), followed by genotyping (region VP3/VP1). HPeVs were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of nine infants (2.3%), one aged 6 months and eight aged 14-55 days old. All were admitted to hospital for febrile syndrome with abrupt clinical deterioration and suspected systemic infection without clear laboratory signs of meningeal inflammation. The same virus was detected in all the available nasopharyngeal aspirates, stool, and/or serum samples from each patient. At least eight of the nine cases were caused by HPeV3. HPeVs were detected in stool samples from 17 children (6.3%), the most prevalent types being types 1 and 3. In conclusion, HPeV infection is common in the Basque Country (Spain) and HPeV3 is a significant cause of hospital admission due to systemic infection in the first few months of life. In these patients, HPeVs should be investigated as part of routine tests for enterovirus. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Marimon J.M.,Hospital Donostia | Marimon J.M.,Biomedical Research Center Network for Respiratory Diseases | Villar M.,Hospital Donostia | Garcia-Arenzana J.M.,Hospital Donostia | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Infection | Year: 2012

Objectives: To study the prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) gene in methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus obtained in Gipuzkoa, northeastern area of the Basque Country, north-central Spain, and perform the molecular characterization of PVL-positive isolates. Methods: Molecular studies comprised: PVL gene detection by PCR, staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCC. mec) typing, spa sequencing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and detection of the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME). Results: Between 1978 and 2006, only two (0.3%) of the 686 MRSA isolates studied were positive for the PVL gene. This percentage increased between 2007 and 2009, when the PVL gene was detected in 30 of the 679 MRSA (4.4%) and in nine of the 1227 MSSA (0.7%) isolates. The 41 PVL-positive isolates characterized had eight different sequence types (STs). Twenty-three MRSA PVL-positive isolates were ST8, spa type t008, seven of which were ACME positive, erythromycin-resistant and showed the PFGE pattern (90-100% similarity) of the USA300 clone. ST8 was also the most prevalent ST among the nine MSSA PVL-positive isolates. Conclusion: The current epidemiology of PVL-positive MRSA in our region more closely resembles that of the USA rather than that of other European countries, being USA300 or USA300-like isolates the most prevalent ones. © 2011 The British Infection Association.


Marimon J.M.,Hospital Universitario Donostia Instituto Biodonostia | Marimon J.M.,Biomedical Research Center Network for Respiratory Diseases | Ercibengoa M.,Hospital Universitario Donostia Instituto Biodonostia | Garcia-Arenzana J.M.,Hospital Universitario Donostia Instituto Biodonostia | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics and shifts in serotype distribution of pneumococcal isolates causing ocular infections in a region of northern Spain in two periods: 1999-2010 for episodes of conjunctivitis (n = 612) and 1980-2010 for uncommon and more severe non-conjunctival ocular infections (n = 36). All isolates were serotyped and non-typeable isolates were confirmed as unencapsulated by multiplex-PCR of the lytA, ply and cpsA genes. Genotyping was done by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multi-locus sequence typing. Most conjunctivitis cases occurred in children under 5 years old (89.5%), and more severe non-conjunctival ocular infections occurred in patients older than 25 years (86.1%). Unencapsulated isolates were detected in 213 conjunctivitis episodes (34.8%) and one non-conjunctival infection (2.8%). Rates of unencapsulated isolates were similar throughout the study. Among 399 conjunctival encapsulated isolates, the most prevalent were serotypes 19A (n = 53), 15B (n = 30), 6A (n = 27), 19F (n = 25), 23F (n = 21) and 6B (n = 17). The most prevalent serotypes in non-conjunctival infections were serotype 3 (n = 4), 23F (n = 4), 6B (n = 3) and 19A (n = 3). Conjunctivitis caused by serotypes included in the hepta-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine steadily decreased, accounting for 34.9% (22/63) in 1999-2001, 19.7% (23/117) in 2002-04, 13.6% (33/242) in 2005-07 and 3.2% (6/190) in 2008-10. Among the 213 unencapsulated isolates, 31 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were identified. The main clonal complexes (CC) were CC941 (ST941, ST942), CC448 (ST448) and CC344 (ST344, ST3097). CC941 was the predominant CC in 1999-2001, 2002-04 and 2005-07, being replaced by CC448 in 2008-10. The multidrug-resistant CC344 was present throughout the study. © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


Alonso M.,Hospital Universitario Donostia Instituto Biodonostia | Marimon J.M.,Hospital Universitario Donostia Instituto Biodonostia | Marimon J.M.,Biomedical Research Center Network for Respiratory Diseases | Ercibengoa M.,Hospital Universitario Donostia Instituto Biodonostia | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to determine the serotype and clonal distribution of pneumococci causing acute otitis media (AOM) and their relationship with recurrences and mixed infections with other microorganisms under the influence of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). To do this, all pneumococcal isolates collected from the spontaneous middle-ear drainage of children <5 years old diagnosed of AOM by their pediatrician or their general practitioner from 1999 to 2010 were phenotypically characterized and the most frequent serotypes were genotyped. In the 12-year study, 818 episodes of pneumococcal AOM were detected, mostly (70.5%) in children younger than 2 years old. In 262 episodes (32%), the pneumococci were isolated with another bacterium, mainly (n = 214) Haemophilus influenzae. Mixed infections were similar in children under or over 2 years old. The most frequent serotypes were 19A (n = 227, 27.8%), 3 (n = 92, 11.2%) and 19F (n = 74, 9%). Serotypes included in the PCV7 sharply decreased from 62.4% in the pre-vaccination (1999-2001) to 2.2% in the late post-vaccination period (2008-2010). Serotype diversity steadily increased after the introduction of the PCV7 but decreased from 2008-2010 due to the predominant role of serotype 19A isolates, mostly ST276 and ST320. The prevalence of serotype 3 doubled from 6.1% (20/326) in 1999-2004 to 14.6% (72/492) in 2005-2010. Relapses mainly occurred in male infants infected with isolates with diminished antimicrobial susceptibility. Reinfections caused by isolates with the same serotype but different genotype were frequent, highlighting the need for genetic studies to differentiate among similar strains. In conclusion, the main change in pneumococcal AOM observed after the introduction of the PCV7 was the sharp decrease in vaccine serotypes. Also notable was the high burden of serotype 19A in total pneumococcal AOM before and especially after the introduction of the PCV7, as well as in relapses and reinfections. © 2013 Alonso et al.


Perez-Trallero E.,Hospital Donostia | Perez-Trallero E.,Biomedical Research Center Network for Respiratory Diseases | Perez-Trallero E.,University of the Basque Country | Marimon J.M.,Hospital Donostia | And 4 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

In the elderly, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of pneumonia and one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in cases of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). This study was conducted to compare the pneumococcal isolates obtained during episodes of AECOPD and pneumonia in patients of ≥65 years old and to analyze whether in patients with AECOPD and pneumonia within a short interval, the same isolate caused both episodes. This laboratory-based study was performed between 2005 and 2008. Pneumococcal isolates from episodes of pneumonia (n = 401) and AECOPD (n = 398), matched one-to-one by date of isolation, were characterized. The serotypes and genotypes of other pneumococcal isolates causing pneumonia and AECOPD in the same patient were compared. In patients with pneumonia, COPD as an underlying disease was not associated with more-drug-resistant pneumococci. In contrast, isolates causing AECOPD showed higher rates of resistance than those causing pneumonia. Serotypes 1, 3, and 7F were more frequent in pneumonia. The same pneumococcus was involved in 25.7% (9/35 patients) of patients with two consecutive AECOPD episodes but in only 6.3% (2/32 patients) of COPD patients with pneumonia and exacerbation (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.047). Less invasive serotypes were isolated more often in AECOPD and were more resistant to antimicrobials. The presence of a specific pneumococcal serotype in AECOPD does not predict the etiology of subsequent pneumonia. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Tamayo E.,Hospital Universitario Donostia Instituto Biodonostia | Tamayo E.,Biomedical Research Center Network for Respiratory Diseases | Montes M.,Hospital Universitario Donostia Instituto Biodonostia | Montes M.,Biomedical Research Center Network for Respiratory Diseases | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Infection | Year: 2014

Objective: To know the clinical entities caused by Streptococcus pyogenes as well as the characteristics of the isolates involved in them throughout a 7-year-study. Methods: All S. pyogenes infectious episodes from the community recorded in the reference hospital of Gipuzkoa between 2005 and 2011 were included (n=11,342). A random selection of 10% of total isolates was characterized by emm-type, T-type and multilocus-sequence-type. Results: Main clinical presentations were: pharyngitis (n=9467), otitis (n=797), dermal infections (n=506), and genital infections (n=374). Highest frequency of pharyngitis and otitis was detected in children aged 2-8 years old and 1-year old, respectively. Among 29 emm-types, 8 (emm4, emm89, emm3, emm87, emm1, emm12, emm6 and emm75) grouped >70% of isolates. emm4 was significantly associated with 0-4 year-old patients, and emm89 and emm77 with patients >64 years; by infection type, emm4, emm87 and emm12 were associated with pharyngitis, emm1 and emm6 with otitis, emm89 with dermal infections, and emm77 with genital infections. Conclusions: Predominant emm-type changed every year, although the diversity was similar throughout the study period. S. pyogenes pharyngitis maximum incidence presented at earlier age than expected. emm-type associations with age and specific clinical presentations were influenced by population immunity and strain tropism. © 2013 The British Infection Association.


Larruskain J.,Hospital Donostia | Idigoras P.,Hospital Donostia | Marimon J.M.,Hospital Donostia | Marimon J.M.,Biomedical Research Center Network for Respiratory Diseases | And 3 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

This study determined the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 186 clinical isolates of Nocardia spp. isolated in Gipuzkoa, northern Spain, between 1998 and 2009. Most isolates were recovered from respiratory samples, Nocardia nova, N. farcinica, N. cyriacigeorgica, N. abscessus, and N. carnea being the species most frequently isolated. Linezolid and amikacin were the only two antimicrobials to which all isolates were susceptible. The majority of N. flavorosea, N. carnea, and N. farcinica isolates were trimethoprim-sulfa- methoxazole resistant. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Montes M.,Hospital Universitario Donostia Instituto Biodonostia | Montes M.,Biomedical Research Center Network for Respiratory Diseases | Tamayo E.,Biomedical Research Center Network for Respiratory Diseases | Mojica C.,Hospital Universitario Donostia Instituto Biodonostia | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Objectives To survey antibiotic resistance among Streptococcus pyogenes isolates collected from 2005 to 2012, to characterize those showing erythromycin resistance and to analyse the association of certain emm types with erythromycin resistance or susceptibility. Methods Resistance determinants or mutations conferring erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline and fluoroquinolone resistance were analysed. All erythromycin-resistant isolates and a sample of erythromycin-susceptible isolates were emm typed. Multilocus sequence typing was performed for representative emm types. Results Antimicrobial susceptibility was studied for 12346 S. pyogenes isolates. Erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline resistance showed a decreasing trend. In 2012, 2.8% of isolates were erythromycin resistant versus 7.5% in 2005 and 11.7% in 2006. Although 21 clones were involved, 4 clones accounted for almost 90% of erythromycin-resistant isolates. The emm12/ST36 clone, carrying the mef(A) gene, was the predominant (41.1%) erythromycin-resistant clone, with an incidence peak in 2008, followed by a gradual decline. The M phenotype predominated each year except for 2005, when two of the main erythromycin-resistant clones (emm11/ST403 and emm28/ST52) harboured an erm(B) gene. Erythromycin resistance was significantly higher in adults than in children. Skin isolates showed the highest erythromycin resistance rate; among these, perianal isolates frequently belonged to the emm28/ST52 clone. The emm type was not a predictor of erythromycin resistance; however, most emm11 and emm12 were erythromycin-resistant isolates. Macrolide consumption was similar throughout the study period. Only two isolates with a high level of levofloxacin resistance were detected. Conclusions Resistance was mainly related to the circulation of emm12/ST36, emm11/ST403, emm28/ST52 and emm4/ST39 clones, all of which declined throughout the study period. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Perez-Trallero E.,Hospital Donostia IIS Biodonostia | Perez-Trallero E.,Biomedical Research Center Network for Respiratory Diseases | Perez-Trallero E.,University of the Basque Country | Esnal O.,Biomedical Research Center Network for Respiratory Diseases | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The effectiveness of a vaccine is determined not only by the immunogenicity of its components, but especially by how widely it covers the disease-causing strains circulating in a given region. Because vaccine coverage varies over time, this study aimed to detect possible changes that could affect vaccine protection during a specific period in a southern European region. The 4CMenB vaccine is licensed for use in Europe, Canada, and Australia and is mainly directed against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. This vaccine contains four main immunogenic components: three recombinant proteins, FHbp, Nhba and NadA, and an outer membrane vesicle [PorA P1.4]. The allelic distribution of FHbp, Nhba, NadA, and PorA antigens in 82 invasive isolates (B and non-B serogroups) isolated from January 2008 to December 2013 were analyzed. 4CMenB was likely protective against 61.8% and 50% of serogroup B and non-B meningococci, respectively, in the entire period, but between 2012 and 2013, the predicted protection fell below 45% (42.1% for serogroup B isolates).The observed decreasing trend in the predicted protection during the 6 years of the study (X2 for trend =4.68, p=0.03) coincided with a progressive decrease of several clonal complexes (e.g., cc11, cc32 and cc41/44), which had one or more antigens against which the vaccine would offer protection. © 2014 Pérez-Trallero et al.

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