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Rumnieks J.,Biomedical Research and Study Center | Tars K.,Biomedical Research and Study Center | Tars K.,University of Latvia
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2017

Virions of the single-stranded RNA bacteriophages contain a single copy of the maturation protein, which is bound to the phage genome and is required for the infectivity of the particles. The maturation protein mediates the adsorption of the virion to bacterial pili and the subsequent release and penetration of the genome into the host cell. Here, we report a crystal structure of the maturation protein from bacteriophage Qβ. The protein has a bent, highly asymmetric shape and spans 110. Å in length. Apart from small local substructures, the overall fold of the maturation protein does not resemble that of other known proteins. The protein is organized in two distinct regions, an α-helical part with a four-helix core, and a β stranded part that contains a seven-stranded sheet in the central part and a five-stranded sheet at the tip of the protein. The Qβ maturation protein has two distinct, positively charged areas at opposite sides of the α-helical part, which are involved in genomic RNA binding. The maturation protein binds to each of the surrounding coat protein dimers in the capsid differently, and the interaction is considerably weaker compared to coat protein interdimer contacts. The coat protein- or RNA-binding residues are not preserved among different ssRNA phage maturation proteins; instead, the distal end of the α-helical part is the most evolutionarily conserved, suggesting the importance of this region for maintaining the functionality of the protein. © 2017.


Barbet-Massin E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Pell A.J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Jaudzems K.,Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis | Franks W.T.,Leibniz Institute for Molecular Pharmacology | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular NMR | Year: 2013

We present here 1H-detected triple-resonance H/N/C experiments that incorporate CO-CA and CA-CB out-and-back scalar-transfer blocks optimized for robust resonance assignment in biosolids under ultra-fast magic-angle spinning (MAS). The first experiment, (H)(CO)CA(CO)NH, yields 1H-detected inter-residue correlations, in which we record the chemical shifts of the CA spins in the first indirect dimension while during the scalar-transfer delays the coherences are present only on the longer-lived CO spins. The second experiment, (H)(CA)CB(CA)NH, correlates the side-chain CB chemical shifts with the NH of the same residue. These high sensitivity experiments are demonstrated on both fully-protonated and 100 %-HN back-protonated perdeuterated microcrystalline samples of Acinetobacter phage 205 (AP205) capsids at 60 kHz MAS. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


PubMed | Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Biomedical Research and Study Center and Bruker
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2016

Protein structure determination by proton-detected magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR has focused on highly deuterated samples, in which only a small number of protons are introduced and observation of signals from side chains is extremely limited. Here, we show in two fully protonated proteins that, at 100-kHz MAS and above, spectral resolution is high enough to detect resolved correlations from amide and side-chain protons of all residue types, and to reliably measure a dense network of (1)H-(1)H proximities that define a protein structure. The high data quality allowed the correct identification of internuclear distance restraints encoded in 3D spectra with automated data analysis, resulting in accurate, unbiased, and fast structure determination. Additionally, we find that narrower proton resonance lines, longer coherence lifetimes, and improved magnetization transfer offset the reduced sample size at 100-kHz spinning and above. Less than 2 weeks of experiment time and a single 0.5-mg sample was sufficient for the acquisition of all data necessary for backbone and side-chain resonance assignment and unsupervised structure determination. We expect the technique to pave the way for atomic-resolution structure analysis applicable to a wide range of proteins.


Tars K.,Biomedical Research and Study Center | Vullo D.,University of Florence | Kazaks A.,Biomedical Research and Study Center | Leitans J.,Biomedical Research and Study Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Coumarins were recently shown to constitute a novel class of mechanism-based carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors. We demonstrate that sulfocoumarins (1,2-benzoxathiine 2,2-dioxides) possess a similar mechanism of action, acting as effective CA inhibitors. The sulfocoumarins were hydrolyzed by the esterase CA activity to 2-hydroxyphenyl-vinylsulfonic acids, which thereafter bind to the enzyme in a region rarely occupied by other classes of inhibitors. The X-ray structure of one of these compounds in adduct with a modified CA II enzyme possessing two amino acid residues from the CA IX active site, allowed us to decipher the inhibition mechanism. The sulfonic acid was observed anchored to the zinc-coordinated water molecule, making favorable interactions with Thr200 and Pro201. Some other sulfocoumarins incorporating substituted-1,2,3-triazole moieties were prepared by using click chemistry and showed low nanomolar inhibitory action against the tumor-associated isoforms CA IX and XII, being less effective against the cytosolic CA I and II. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Ivanova J.,Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis | Leitans J.,Biomedical Research and Study Center | Tanc M.,University of Florence | Kazaks A.,Biomedical Research and Study Center | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2015

1-N-Alkylated-6-sulfamoyl saccharin derivatives were prepared and assayed as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs). During X-ray crystallographic experiments an unexpected hydrolysis of the isothiazole ring was evidenced which allowed us to prepare highly potent enzyme inhibitors with selectivity for some isoforms with medical applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Leitans J.,Biomedical Research and Study Center | Sprudza A.,Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis | Tanc M.,University of Florence | Vozny I.,Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis | And 3 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

We report here a series of 2-thiophene-sulfonamides incorporating 1-substituted aryl-1,2,3-triazolyl moieties, prepared by click chemistry from 5-ethynylthiophene-2-sulfonamide and substituted aryl azides. The new sulfonamides were investigated as inhibitors of the zinc metalloenzyme CA (EC 4.2.1.1), and more specifically against the human (h) cytosolic isoforms hCA I and II and the transmembrane, tumor-associated ones hCA IX and XII: The new compounds were medium-weak hCA I inhibitors (KIs in the range of 224-7544 nM), but were compactly, highly effective, low nanomolar hCA II inhibitors (KIs of 2.2-7.7 nM). The tumor-associated hCA IX was inhibited with KIs ranging between 5.4 and 811 nM, whereas hCA XII with inhibition constants in the range of 3.4-239 nM. The X-ray crystal structure of the adducts of two such compounds bound to hCA II (one incorporating 1-naphthyl, the other one 3-cyanophenyl moieties) evidenced the reasons of the high affinity for hCA II. Highly favorable, predominantly hydrophobic interactions between the sulfonamide scaffold and the hCA II active site were responsible for the binding, in addition to the coordination of the sulfamoyl moiety to the zinc ion. The tails of the two inhibitors adopted very diverse orientations when bound to the active site, with the naphthyltriazolyl moiety orientated towards the hydrophobic half of the active site, and the 3-cyanophenyl one pointing towards the hydrophilic half. These data may be used for the structure-based drug design of even more effective hCA II inhibitors, with potential use as antiglaucoma agents or as diuretics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhang W.,Uppsala University | Moden O.,Uppsala University | Tars K.,Biomedical Research and Study Center | Mannervik B.,Uppsala University | Mannervik B.,University of Stockholm
Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2012

Glutathione transferase (GST) A2-2 is the most efficient human enzyme in the biotransformation of the prodrug azathioprine (Aza). The activation of Aza has therapeutic potential for possible use of GSTs in targeted enzyme-prodrug treatment of diseases. Based on the assumed catalytic mechanism and computational docking of Aza to the active site of the enzyme, active-site residues were selected for construction of focused mutant libraries, which were thereafter screened for Aza activity. Mutants with elevated Aza activity were identified, DNA sequenced, and the proteins purified. The two most active mutants showed up to 70-fold higher catalytic efficiency than the parental GST A2-2. The structure of the most active triple mutant (L107G/L108D/F222H) enzyme was determined by X-ray crystallography demonstrating significant changes in the topography of the active site facilitating productive binding of Aza as a substrate. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Vasilevska J.,Biomedical Research and Study Center | Skrastina D.,Biomedical Research and Study Center | Spunde K.,Biomedical Research and Study Center | Garoff H.,Karolinska Institutet | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Gene Therapy | Year: 2012

Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors are promising tools for cancer gene therapy because they ensure a high level of transgene expression and a rapid and strong cytopathic effect. However, broad tissue tropism and transient expression make it more difficult to develop an optimal cancer treatment strategy. In this study, we have compared the distribution of recombinant SFV particles (recSFV) and naked viral RNA replicon (recRNA) in tumor-free and 4T1 mammary tumor-bearing mice as a consequence of different vector administration strategies. The high potential of SFV recRNA as a biosafe approach for the development of therapeutic treatment was demonstrated. Intravenous (i.v.) inoculation of recRNA provided primary brain targeting in both tumor-free and 4T1 tumor mouse models, but local intratumoral inoculation revealed a high expression level in tumors. Moreover, we observed the predominant tumor targeting of recSFV at a reduced viral dose on i.v. and intraperitoneal (i.p.) virus inoculation, whereas the dose increase led to a broad virus distribution in mice. To prolong transgene expression, we have tested several i.v. and i.p. reinoculation strategies. A detailed evaluation of vector distribution and readministration properties could have an impact on cancer gene therapy clinical trial safety and efficacy. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Rumnieks J.,Biomedical Research and Study Center | Tars K.,Biomedical Research and Study Center
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

The coat proteins of single-stranded RNA bacteriophages specifically recognize and bind to a hairpin structure in their genome at the beginning of the replicase gene. The interaction serves to repress the synthesis of the replicase enzyme late in infection and contributes to the specific encapsidation of phage RNA. While this mechanism is conserved throughout the Leviviridae family, the coat protein and operator sequences from different phages show remarkable variation, serving as prime examples for the co-evolution of protein and RNA structure. To better understand the protein-RNA interactions in this virus family, we have determined the three-dimensional structure of the coat protein from bacteriophage Qβ bound to its cognate translational operator. The RNA binding mode of Qβ coat protein shares several features with that of the widely studied phage MS2, but only one nucleotide base in the hairpin loop makes sequence-specific contacts with the protein. Unlike in other RNA phages, the Qβ coat protein does not utilize an adenine-recognition pocket for binding a bulged adenine base in the hairpin stem but instead uses a stacking interaction with a tyrosine side chain to accommodate the base. The extended loop between β strands E and F of Qβ coat protein makes contacts with the lower part of the RNA stem, explaining the greater length dependence of the RNA helix for optimal binding to the protein. Consequently, the complex structure allows the proposal of a mechanism by which the Qβ coat protein recognizes and discriminates in favor of its cognate RNA. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Latvia and Biomedical Research and Study Center
Type: | Journal: Journal of molecular biology | Year: 2017

Virions of the single-stranded RNA bacteriophages contain a single copy of the maturation protein, which is bound to the phage genome and is required for the infectivity of the particles. The maturation protein mediates the adsorption of the virion to bacterial pili and the subsequent release and penetration of the genome into the host cell. Here, we report a crystal structure of the maturation protein from bacteriophage Q. The protein has a bent, highly asymmetric shape and spans 110 in length. Apart from small local substructures, the overall fold of the maturation protein does not resemble that of other known proteins. The protein is organized in two distinct regions, an -helical part with a four-helix core, and a stranded part that contains a seven-stranded sheet in the central part and a five-stranded sheet at the tip of the protein. The Q maturation protein has two distinct, positively charged areas at opposite sides of the -helical part, which are involved in genomic RNA binding. The maturation protein binds to each of the surrounding coat protein dimers in the capsid differently, and the interaction is considerably weaker compared to coat protein interdimer contacts. The coat protein- or RNA-binding residues are not preserved among different ssRNA phage maturation proteins; instead, the distal end of the -helical part is the most evolutionarily conserved, suggesting the importance of this region for maintaining the functionality of the protein.

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