Riedel S.,Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform |
Abel S.,Mycotoxicology and Chemoprevention Research Group |
Burger H.-M.,Mycotoxicology and Chemoprevention Research Group |
van der Westhuizen L.,Cape Peninsula University of Technology |
And 3 more authors.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2016
Differential sensitivity of primary hepatocytes and Chang cells to the cancer promoter fumonisin B1 (FB1)-induced cytotoxic effects were investigated in relation to changes in membrane lipid distribution. In contrast to primary hepatocytes, Chang cells were resistant to FB1-induced cytotoxic effects. This was associated with a high cholesterol (Chol) and sphingomyelin (SM) and low phosphatidylcholine (PC) content, resulting in a significant (P<0.05) decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)/PC ratio, increased Chol/total phosphoglyceride (TPG) ratios and low total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content in PC and PE, suggesting a more rigid membrane structure. High levels of C18:1 and reduced polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are likely to provide selective resistance to FB1-induced oxidative stress. FB1-associated lipid changes included decreases in SM and Chol, increases in sphinganine (Sa) and PE with the increases in key saturated, monounsaturated, and PUFAs in PE as key role players in the differential responses to FB1-induced cell growth responses in cells. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Pheiffer C.,Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform |
Erasmus R.T.,Stellenbosch University |
Erasmus R.T.,Non Communicable Diseases Research Unit |
Kengne A.P.,Non Communicable Diseases Research Unit |
And 2 more authors.
Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2015
Objective: Accumulating evidence supports the role of epigenetic modifications, and in particular DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Alterations in methylation patterns within promoter regions are linked with aberrant transcription and pathological gene expression; however the role of methylation within non-promoter regions is not yet fully elucidated. Design and methods: We performed whole genome methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) in peripheral-blood-derived DNA from age-gender-body mass index (BMI)-ethnicity matched type 2 diabetic, pre-diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Results: The density of methylation normalized to the average length of the promoter, intergenic and intragenic regions and to CpG count was 3.17, 9.80 and 0.09 for the promoter, intergenic and intragenic regions, respectively. Methylation within these regions varied according to glucose tolerance status and was associated with hypermethylation rather than hypomethylation. MicroRNA-DNA methylation peaks accounted for 4.8% of the total number of peaks detected. Differential DNA methylation of these microRNA peaks was observed during dysglycemia, with the promoter, intergenic and intragenic regions accounting for 2%, 95% and 3% respectively, of the differentially methylated microRNA peaks. Conclusion: Genome-wide DNA methylation varied according to glucose tolerance. Methylation within non-promoter regions accounted for the majority of differentially methylated peaks identified, thus highlighting the importance of DNA methylation within these non-promoter regions in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. This study suggests that DNA methylation within intergenic regions is a mechanism regulating microRNAs, another increasingly important epigenetic factor, during type 2 diabetes. © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists.
PubMed | Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform, Stellenbosch University and University of Cape Town
Type: | Journal: Journal of diabetes research | Year: 2016
The aim of this study is to quantify global DNA methylation and investigate the relationship with diabetes status and polymorphisms in MTHFR C677T and NOS3 G894T genes in mixed ancestry subjects from South Africa. Global DNA methylation was measured, and
Inhibitory Interactions of Aspalathus linearis (Rooibos) Extracts and Compounds, Aspalathin and Z-2-(β-d-Glucopyranosyloxy)-3-phenylpropenoic Acid, on Cytochromes Metabolizing Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Drugs
PubMed | Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform, Agricultural Research Council and Stellenbosch University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016
Rooibos extract, due to its glucose and lipid lowering effects, has potential as a nutraceutical for improvement of metabolic dysfunction. Potential herb-drug interactions as a result of the use of natural products are of increasing concern. Cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4, are important in the metabolism of hypoglycemic drugs, such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and sulfonylureas, and hypocholesterolemic drugs, such as atorvastatin. This study investigated the effects of rooibos extracts, prepared from unfermented and fermented rooibos plant material and two of the major bioactive compounds,
PubMed | Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform and Stellenbosch University
Type: | Journal: Cardiovascular therapeutics | Year: 2017
Exposure of the heart to 5 min global ischaemia (I) followed by 5 min reperfusion (R) (ischaemic preconditioning, IPC) or transient Beta 2-adrenergic receptor (B2-AR) stimulation with formoterol (B2PC), followed by 5 min washout before index ischaemia, elicits cardioprotection against subsequent sustained ischaemia. Since the washout period during preconditioning is essential for subsequent cardioprotection, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of protein kinase A (PKA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), PKB/Akt, p38 MAPK and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) during this period. Isolated perfused rat hearts were exposed to IPC (1x5min I / 5min R) or B2PC (1x5min Formoterol / 5min R) followed by 35 min regional ischaemia and reperfusion. Inhibitors for PKA (Rp-8CPT-cAMP)(16M), ROS (NAC)(300M), PKB (A-6730)(2.5M), ERKp44/p42 (PD98,059)(10M), p38MAPK (SB239063)(1M) or JNK (SP600125)(10M) were administered for 5 minutes before 5 minutes global ischaemia / 5 min reperfusion (IPC) or for 5 minutes before and during administration of formoterol ( B2PC) prior to regional ischaemia, reperfusion and infarct size (IS) determination. Hearts exposed to B2PC or IPC were freeze-clamped during the washout period for Western blots analysis of PKB, ERKp44/p42, p38MAPK and JNK. The PKA blocker abolished both B2PC and IPC, while NAC significantly increased IS of IPC but not of B2PC. Western blot analysis showed that ERKp44/p42 and PKB activation during washout after B2PC compared to IPC was significantly increased. IPC compared to B2PC showed significant p38MAPK and JNKp54/p46 activation. PKB and ERK inhibition or p38MAPK and JNK inhibition during the washout period of B2PC and IPC respectively, significantly increased IS. PKA activation before regional ischaemia is a prerequisite for cardioprotection in both B2PC and IPC. However, ROS was crucial only in IPC. Kinase activation during the washout phase of IPC and B2PC, albeit different, affords the same cardioprotective response.
PubMed | Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform, Biostatistics Unit, Stellenbosch University and Agricultural Research Council
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology | Year: 2016
The relationship between polyphenol constituents, antioxidant properties of aqueous and methanol extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), the herbal teas, rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia spp.), against skin cell viability was investigated in vitro.The effect of extracts, characterised in terms of polyphenol content and antioxidant properties, on cell viability of premalignant, normal and malignant skin cells was determined.Phenolic composition, particularly high levels of potent antioxidants, of rooibos and green tea methanol extracts was associated with a strong reduction in cell viability specifically targeting premalignant cells. In contrast, the aqueous extracts of Cyclopia spp. were more effective in reducing cell viability. This correlated with a relatively high flavanol/proanthocyanidin content and ABTS radical cation scavenging capacity. The major green tea flavanol (epigallocatechin gallate) and rooibos dihydrochalcone (aspalathin) exhibited differential effects against cell viability, while the major honeybush xanthone (mangiferin) and flavanone (hesperidin) lacked any effect presumably due to a cytoprotective effect. The underlying mechanisms against skin cell viability are likely to involve mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from polyphenol-iron interactions.The polyphenol constituents and antioxidant parameters of herbal tea extracts are useful tools to predict their activity against skin cell survival in vitro and potential chemopreventive effects in vivo.
PubMed | Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform, University of Cape Town, Stellenbosch University and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: International journal of endocrinology | Year: 2016
Aims. To conduct a genome-wide DNA methylation in individuals with type 2 diabetes, individuals with prediabetes, and control mixed ancestry individuals from South Africa. Methods. We used peripheral blood to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in 3 individuals with screen detected diabetes, 3 individuals with prediabetes, and 3 individuals with normoglycaemia from the Bellville South Community, Cape Town, South Africa, who were age-, gender-, body mass index-, and duration of residency-matched. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) was performed by Arraystar Inc. (Rockville, MD, USA). Results. Hypermethylated DMRs were 1160 (81.97%) and 124 (43.20%), respectively, in individuals with diabetes and prediabetes when both were compared to subjects with normoglycaemia. Our data shows that genes related to the immune system, signal transduction, glucose transport, and pancreas development have altered DNA methylation in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes. Pathway analysis based on the functional analysis mapping of genes to KEGG pathways suggested that the linoleic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways are hypomethylated in prediabetes and diabetes. Conclusions. Our study suggests that epigenetic changes are likely to be an early process that occurs before the onset of overt diabetes. Detailed analysis of DMRs that shows gradual methylation differences from control versus prediabetes to prediabetes versus diabetes in a larger sample size is required to confirm these findings.
PubMed | Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform, ARC Technology and University of the Western Cape
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular nutrition & food research | Year: 2016
Energy deprivation in the myocardium is associated with impaired heart function. This study aims to investigate if aspalathin (ASP) can ameliorate hyperglycemic-induced shift in substrate preference and protect the myocardium against cell apoptosis.H9c2 cells were exposed to, either normal (5.5 mM) or high (33 mM) glucose concentrations for 48 h. Thereafter, cells exposed to 33 mM glucose were treated with metformin (1 M) or ASP (1 M), as well as a combination of metformin and ASP for 6 h. In vitro studies revealed that ASP improved glucose metabolism by decreasing fatty acid uptake and subsequent -oxidation through the decreased expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase threonine 172 (pAMPK (Thr172)) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), while increasing acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression. ASP inhibited high glucose induced loss of membrane potential in H9c2 cells as observed by an increase in 5 ,6,6-tetrachloro-1,1,3,3 -tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) ratio (orange\red fluorescence) and decreased apoptosis by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species and DNA nick formation, while increasing glutathione, superoxide dismutase, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and Bcl-2\Bax ratio.Our study provides evidence that ASP increases glucose oxidation and modulates fatty acid utilization producing a favorable substrate shift in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose. Such a favorable shift will be of importance in the protection of cardiomyocytes in the diabetic heart.
PubMed | Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform, Cape Peninsula University of Technology and Biostatistics Unit
Type: | Journal: Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids | Year: 2016
Differential sensitivity of primary hepatocytes and Chang cells to the cancer promoter fumonisin B1 (FB1)-induced cytotoxic effects were investigated in relation to changes in membrane lipid distribution. In contrast to primary hepatocytes, Chang cells were resistant to FB1-induced cytotoxic effects. This was associated with a high cholesterol (Chol) and sphingomyelin (SM) and low phosphatidylcholine (PC) content, resulting in a significant (P<0.05) decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)/PC ratio, increased Chol/total phosphoglyceride (TPG) ratios and low total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content in PC and PE, suggesting a more rigid membrane structure. High levels of C18:1 and reduced polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are likely to provide selective resistance to FB1-induced oxidative stress. FB1-associated lipid changes included decreases in SM and Chol, increases in sphinganine (Sa) and PE with the increases in key saturated, monounsaturated, and PUFAs in PE as key role players in the differential responses to FB1-induced cell growth responses in cells.
PubMed | Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of physiology and biochemistry | Year: 2016
Obesity, a complex metabolic disorder, is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) during obesity is an adaptive response to suppress the production of reactive oxygen species. The aims of this study were to compare the expression of UCP2 in diet-induced obese Wistar rats that differed according to age and their severity of obesity, and to compare UCP2 expression in the liver and muscle of these rats. UCP2 messenger RNA and protein expression was increased 4.6-fold (p<0.0001) and 3.0-fold (p<0.05), respectively, in the liver of the older and heavier rats. In contrast, UCP2 expression was decreased twofold (p<0.005) in the muscle of these rats, while UCP3 messenger RNA (mRNA) was increased twofold (p<0.01). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR) was similarly increased (3.0-fold, p<0.05) in the liver of the older and more severe obese rats. Total protein content was increased (2.3-fold, p<0.0001), while 5 adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity was decreased (1.3-fold, p=0.05) in the liver of the older, heavier rats. No difference in total protein content and AMPK expression was observed in the muscle of these rats. This study showed that the expression of UCP2 varies according to age and the severity of obesity and supports the widely held notion that increased UCP2 expression is an adaptive response to increased fatty acid -oxidation and reactive oxygen species production that occurs during obesity. An understanding of metabolic adaptation is imperative to gain insight into the underlying causes of disease, thus facilitating intervention strategies to combat disease progression.