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Marshfield, WI, United States

VanWormer J.J.,Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health | Miller A.W.,Biomedical Informatics Research Center | Rezkalla S.H.,Marshfield Clinic
Clinical Epidemiology | Year: 2014

Background: Aspirin is commonly used for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the US. Previous research has observed significant levels of inappropriate aspirin use for primary CVD prevention in some European populations, but the degree to which aspirin is overutilized in the US remains unknown. This study examined the association between regular aspirin use and demographic/clinical factors in a population-based sample of adults without a clinical indication for aspirin for primary prevention.Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using 2010–2012 data from individuals aged 30–79 years in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area (WI, USA). Regular aspirin users included those who took aspirin at least every other day.Results: There were 16,922 individuals who were not clinically indicated for aspirin therapy for primary CVD prevention. Of these, 19% were regular aspirin users. In the final adjusted model, participants who were older, male, lived in northern Wisconsin, had more frequent medical visits, and had greater body mass index had significantly higher odds of regular aspirin use (P<0.001 for all). Race/ethnicity, health insurance, smoking, blood pressure, and lipid levels had negligible influence on aspirin use. A sensitivity analysis found a significant interaction between age and number of medical visits, indicating progressively more aspirin use in older age groups who visited their provider frequently.Conclusion: There was evidence of aspirin overutilization in this US population without CVD. Older age and more frequent provider visits were the strongest predictors of inappropriate aspirin use. Obesity was the only significant clinical factor, suggesting misalignment between perceived aspirin benefits and cardiovascular risks in this subgroup of patients. Prospective studies that examine cardiac and bleeding events associated with regular aspirin use among obese samples (without CVD) are needed to refine clinical guidelines in this area. © 2014 VanWormer et al.

Kalkatawi M.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Rangkuti F.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Schramm M.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Jankovic B.R.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

Motivation: Recognition of poly(A) signals in mRNA is relatively straightforward due to the presence of easily recognizable polyadenylic acid tail. However, the task of identifying poly(A) motifs in the primary genomic DNA sequence that correspond to poly(A) signals in mRNA is a far more challenging problem. Recognition of poly(A) signals is important for better gene annotation and understanding of the gene regulation mechanisms. In this work, we present one such poly(A) motif prediction method based on properties of human genomic DNA sequence surrounding a poly(A) motif. These properties include thermodynamic, physico-chemical and statistical characteristics. For predictions, we developed Artificial Neural Network and Random Forest models. These models are trained to recognize 12 most common poly(A) motifs in human DNA. Our predictors are available as a free web-based tool accessible at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dps. Compared with other reported predictors, our models achieve higher sensitivity and specificity and furthermore provide a consistent level of accuracy for 12 poly(A) motif variants. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Acharya A.,Biomedical Informatics Research Center
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2013

An oral health surveillance platform that queries a clinical/administrative data warehouse was applied to estimate regional prevalence of periodontitis. Cross-sectional analysis of electronic health record data collected between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, was undertaken in a population sample residing in Ladysmith, Wisconsin. Eligibility criteria included: 1) residence in defined zip codes, 2) age 25-64 years, and 3) ≥1 Marshfield dental clinic comprehensive examination. Prevalence was established using 2 independent methods: 1) via an algorithm that considered clinical attachment loss and probe depth and 2) via standardized Current Dental Terminology (CDT) codes related to periodontal treatment. Prevalence estimates were age-standardized to 2000 US Census estimates. Inclusion criteria were met by 2,056 persons. On the basis of the American Academy of Periodontology/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention method, the age-standardized prevalence of moderate or severe periodontitis (combined) was 407 per 1,000 males and 308 per 1,000 females (348/1,000 males and 269/1,000 females using the CDT code method). Increased prevalence and severity of periodontitis was noted with increasing age. Local prevalence of periodontitis was consistent with national estimates. The need to address potential sample selection bias in future electronic health record-based periodontitis research was identified by this approach. Methods outlined herein may be applied to refine oral health surveillance systems, inform dental epidemiologic methods, and evaluate interventional outcomes. © 2013 © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Berg R.L.,Biomedical Informatics Research Center
Clinical Medicine and Research | Year: 2013

Objective: Potential vitamin B12 deficiency is a common clinical diagnostic problem, and many providers have a low threshold for initiating therapy. The goal of this study was to systematically evaluate current practice patterns regarding the laboratory evaluation of suspected vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the electronic medical records of 192 patients initiated on intramuscular vitamin B12 injections. Results: Only 12 patients had objectively documented hematologic responses: decrease of mean corpuscular volume by ≥5 fL with stable or improved hemoglobin. Another 5 patients had equivocal hematologic responses. There was one plausible neurologic response. Thus, only 18 (9.4%) of 192 patients had data supportive of a clinical response. In these 18 patients, the baseline serum B12 level was ≤107 pg/mL; only 3 patients also had a baseline serum methylmalonic acid level, which was ≥1.29 μmol/L in all 3 patients. Conclusions: Currently, only a small minority of patients initiated on intramuscular vitamin B12 supplementation derive any meaningful clinical benefit. Furthermore, current testing recommendations for vitamin B12 deficiency are usually not followed. Up-front ordering of a diagnostic testing cascade is recommended to improve compliance; an example is presented with decision points chosen to improve specificity for clinically evident vitamin B12 deficiency without loss of sensitivity. Ultimately, a better understanding of vitamin B12 physiology is needed to develop and evaluate laboratory tests that more accurately reflect true intracellular vitamin B12 status. ©2013 Marshfield Clinic.

Duellman T.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Warren C.L.,Illumavista Biosciences, Llc | Peissig P.,Biomedical Informatics Research Center | Wynn M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Yang J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics | Year: 2012

Background: Degradation of extracellular matrix support in the large abdominal arteries contribute to abnormal dilation of aorta, leading to abdominal aortic aneurysms, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is the predominant enzyme targeting elastin and collagen present in the walls of the abdominal aorta. Previous studies have suggested a potential association between MMP-9 genotype and abdominal aortic aneurysm, but these studies have been limited only to the p-1562 and (CA) dinucleotide repeat microsatellite polymorphisms in the promoter region of the MMP-9 gene. We determined the functional alterations caused by 15 MMP-9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported to be relatively abundant in the human genome through Western blots, gelatinase, and promoter-reporter assays and incorporated this information to perform a logistic-regression analysis of MMP-9 SNPs in 336 human abdominal aortic aneurysm cases and controls. Methods and Results: Significant functional alterations were observed for 6 exon SNPs and 4 promoter SNPs. Genotype analysis of frequency-matched (age, sex, history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) cases and controls revealed significant genetic heterogeneity exceeding 20% observed for 6 SNPs in our population of mostly white subjects from Northern Wisconsin. A step-wise logistic-regression analysis with 6 functional SNPs, where weakly contributing confounds were eliminated using Akaike information criteria, gave a final 2 SNP (D165N and p-2502) model with an overall odds ratio of 2.45 (95% confdence interval, 1.06-5.70). Conclusions: The combined approach of direct experimental confrmation of the functional alterations of MMP-9 SNPs and logistic-regression analysis revealed significant association between MMP-9 genotype and abdominal aortic aneurysm. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

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