Biomedical Genomics Center

Kolkata, India

Biomedical Genomics Center

Kolkata, India
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Singh K.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Chandra Sekaran A.M.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Bhaumik S.,BioMedical Genomics Center | Aisola M.,Institute for Studies in Industrial Development Campus | And 8 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2015

Introduction: While a number of strategies are being implemented to control cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the cost-effectiveness of these in the South Asian context has not been systematically evaluated. We aim to systematically review the economic (cost-effectiveness) evidence available on the individual-, group- and population-level interventions for control of CVD and T2DM in South Asia. Methods and analysis: This review will consider all relevant economic evaluations, either conducted alongside randomised controlled trials or based on decision modelling estimates. These studies must include participants at risk of developing CVD/T2DM or with established disease in one or more of the South Asian countries (India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives, Bhutan and Afghanistan). We will identify relevant papers by systematically searching all major databases and registries. Selected articles will be screened by two independent researchers. Methodological quality of the studies will be assessed using a modified Drummond and a Phillips checklist. Cochrane guidelines will be followed for bias assessment in the effectiveness studies. Results: Results will be presented in line with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-analysis) checklist, and overall quality of evidence will be presented as per the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. Ethics and dissemination: The study has received ethics approval from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. The results of this review will provide policy-relevant recommendations for the uptake of cost-effectiveness evidence in prioritising decisions on essential chronic disease care packages for South Asia. Study registration number: PROSPERO CRD42013006479. © 2015, BMJ. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Center for Chronic Disease Control, Ministry of Health, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, BioMedical Genomics Center and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMJ open | Year: 2015

While a number of strategies are being implemented to control cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the cost-effectiveness of these in the South Asian context has not been systematically evaluated. We aim to systematically review the economic (cost-effectiveness) evidence available on the individual-, group- and population-level interventions for control of CVD and T2DM in South Asia.This review will consider all relevant economic evaluations, either conducted alongside randomised controlled trials or based on decision modelling estimates. These studies must include participants at risk of developing CVD/T2DM or with established disease in one or more of the South Asian countries (India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives, Bhutan and Afghanistan). We will identify relevant papers by systematically searching all major databases and registries. Selected articles will be screened by two independent researchers. Methodological quality of the studies will be assessed using a modified Drummond and a Phillips checklist. Cochrane guidelines will be followed for bias assessment in the effectiveness studies.Results will be presented in line with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-analysis) checklist, and overall quality of evidence will be presented as per the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach.The study has received ethics approval from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. The results of this review will provide policy-relevant recommendations for the uptake of cost-effectiveness evidence in prioritising decisions on essential chronic disease care packages for South Asia.PROSPERO CRD42013006479.


Chatterjee A.,Netaji Subhas Sanatorium T B Hospital | Basu A.,Netaji Subhas Sanatorium T B Hospital | Chowdhury A.,Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research | Chowdhury A.,Biomedical Genomics Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Genetics | Year: 2015

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a distinct pathologic condition characterized by a disease spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to steato-hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Prevalence of NAFLD varies in different ethnic groups, ranging from 12% in Chinese to 45% in Hispanics. Among Indian populations, the diversity in prevalence is high, ranging from 9% in rural populations to 32% in urban populations, with geographic differences as well. Here, we wished to find out if this difference is reflected in their genetic makeup. To date, several candidate genes and a few genomewide association studies (GWAS) have been carried out, and many associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and NAFLD have been observed. In this study, the risk allele frequencies (RAFs) of NAFLD-associated SNPs in 20 Indian ethnic populations (376 individuals) were analysed. We used two different measures for calculating genetic risk scores and compared their performance. The correlation of additive risk scores of NAFLD for three Hapmap populations with their weighted mean prevalence was found to be high (R2=0.93). Later we used this method to compare NAFLD risk among ethnic Indian populations. Based on our observation, the Indian caste populations have high risk scores compared to Caucasians, who are often used as surrogate and similar to Indian caste population in disease gene association studies, and is significantly higher than the Indian tribal populations. © 2015, Indian Academy of Sciences.


PubMed | Unilever, BioMedical Genomics Center and National Institute of Biomedical Genomics
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

The skin microbiome varies across individuals. The causes of these variations are inadequately understood. We tested the hypothesis that inter-individual variation in facial skin microbiome can be significantly explained by variation in sebum and hydration levels in specific facial regions of humans. We measured sebum and hydration from forehead and cheek regions of healthy female volunteers (n=30). Metagenomic DNA from skin swabs were sequenced for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Altogether, 34 phyla were identified; predominantly Actinobacteria (66.3%), Firmicutes (17.7%), Proteobacteria (13.1%) and Bacteroidetes (1.4%). About 1000 genera were identified; predominantly Propionibacterium (58.6%), Staphylococcus (8.6%), Streptococcus (4.0%), Corynebacterium (3.6%) and Paracoccus (3.3%). A subset (n=24) of individuals were sampled two months later. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that cheek sebum level was the most significant predictor of microbiome composition and diversity followed by forehead hydration level; forehead sebum and cheek hydration levels were not. With increase in cheek sebum, the prevalence of Actinobacteria (p=0.001)/Propionibacterium (p=0.002) increased, whereas microbiome diversity decreased (Shannon Index, p=0.032); this was opposite for other phyla/genera. These trends were reversed for forehead hydration levels. Therefore, the nature and diversity of facial skin microbiome is jointly determined by site-specific lipid and water levels in the stratum corneum.


Mukherjee S.,National Institute of Biomedical Genomics | Mukherjee S.,Biomedical Genomics Center | Ganguli D.,National Institute of Biomedical Genomics | Majumder P.P.,National Institute of Biomedical Genomics
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are directly involved in host-pathogen interactions. Polymorphisms in these genes are associated with susceptibility to infectious diseases. To understand the influence of environment and pathogen diversity on the evolution of TLR genes, we have undertaken a large-scale population-genetic study. Our study included two hunter-gatherer tribal populations and one urbanized nontribal population from India with distinct ethnicities (n=266) and 14 populations inhabiting four different continents (n=1,092). From the data on DNA sequences of cell-surface TLR genes, we observed an excess of rare variants and a large number of low frequency haplotypes in each gene. Nonsynonymous changes were few in every population and the commonly used statistical tests for detecting natural selection provided evidence of purifying selection. The evidence of purifying selection acting on the cell-surface TLRs of the innate immune system is not consistent with Haldane's theory of coevolution of immunity genes, at least of innateimmunity genes, with pathogens. Our study provides evidence that genes of the cell-surface TLRs, that is, TLR2 and TLR4, have been so optimized to defend the host against microbial infections that new mutations in these genes are quickly eliminated. © The Author(s) 2014.


Ghose J.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Bhattacharyyay N.P.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Bhattacharyyay N.P.,Biomedical Genomics Center
RNA Biology | Year: 2015

MicroRNA (miRNA) genes generally share many features common to those of protein coding genes. Various transcription factors (TFs) and co-regulators are also known to regulate miRNA genes. Here we identify novel p53 and NFκB p65/RelA responsive miRNAs and demonstrate that these 2 TFs bind to the regulatory sequences of miR-100, -146a and -150 in both mouse striatal and human cervical carcinoma cells and regulate their expression. p53 represses the miRNAs while NFκB p65/RelA induces them. Further, we provide evidence that exogenous p53 inhibits NFκB p65/RelA activity by reducing its nuclear content and competing with it for CBP binding. This suggests for the existence of a functional cross-talk between the 2 TFs in regulating miRNA expression. Moreover, promoter occupancy assay reveals that exogenous p53 excludes NFκB p65/RelA from its binding site in the upstream sequence of miR-100 gene thereby causing its repression. Thus, our work identifies novel p53 and NFκB p65/RelA responsive miRNAs in human and mouse and uncovers possible mechanisms of co-regulation of miR-100. It is to be mentioned here that cross-talks between p53 and NFκB p65/RelA have been observed to define the outcome of several biological processes and that the pro-apoptotic effect of p53 and the pro-survival functions of NFκB can be largely mediated via the biological roles of the miRNAs these TFs regulate. Our observation with cell lines thus provides an important platform upon which further work is to be done to establish the biological significance of such co-regulation of miRNAs by p53 and NFκB p65/RelA. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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