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Bhattacharjya S.,Indian Institute of Science | Roy K.S.,Indian Institute of Science | Ganguly A.,Tata Memorial Center | Sarkar S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2015

Background: Nucleoporins mediate nucleocytoplasmic exchange of macromolecules and several have been assigned active mitotic functions. Nucleoporins can participate in various mitotic functions like spindle assembly, kinetochore organisation and chromosome segregation- important for genome integrity. Pathways to genome integrity are frequently deregulated in cancer and many are regulated in part by microRNAs. Indeed, altered levels of numerous microRNAs have frequently been associated with tumorigenesis. Here, we unveil a microRNA-mediated regulation of the nucleoporin Nup214 and its downstream effect on genome integrity. Methods: Databases/bioinformatic tools such as miRBase, Oncomine and RNAhybrid predicted Nup214 as a miR-133b target. To validate this, we used luciferase reporter assays, Real-Time PCR and immuno-blotting. Flow cytometry and immuno-blots of mitotic markers were used to analyse cell cycle pattern upon thymidine synchronization and miR-133b treatment. Mitotic indices and chromosomal abnormalities were assessed by immuno-fluorescence for FITC-tagged phospho-H3 as well as video-microscopy for GFP-tagged histone H4. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, caspase3/PARP cleavage and colony formation assays were done to investigate cell death upon either miR-133b transfection or NUP214 knockdown by siRNA. UPCI:SCC084, HCT116, HeLa-H4-pEGFP and HEK293 (human oral squamous cell carcinoma, colorectal, cervical carcinomas and embryonic kidney cell lines, respectively) were used. miR-133b and NUP214 expressions were validated in cancer cell lines and tissues by Real-Time PCR. Results: Examination of head and neck tumour tissues and cancer cell lines revealed that Nup214 and miR-133b expressions are negatively correlated. In vitro, Nup214 was significantly downregulated by ectopic miR-133b. This downregulation elevated mitotic indices and delayed degradation of mitotic marker proteins cyclinB1 and cyclinA and dephosphorylation of H3. Moreover, this mitotic delay enhanced chromosomal abnormalities and apoptosis. Conclusions: We have identified NUP214, a member of the massive nuclear pore complex, as a novel miR-133b target. Thus, we have shown a hitherto unknown microRNA regulation of mitosis mediated by a member of the nucleoporin family. Based on observations, we also raise some hypotheses regarding transport-dependent/independent functions of Nup214 in this study. Our results hence attempt to explain why miR-133b is generally downregulated in tumours and lay out the potential for Nup214 as a therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer. © Bhattacharjya et al.

Choudhury K.R.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Choudhury K.R.,Indian Institute of Science | Bhattacharyya N.P.,Biomedical Genomics Center
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2015

Huntington's disease is a polyglutamine expansion disorder, characterized by mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. Many reports suggests roles of N-terminal 17 amino acid domain of HTT (HTT-N17) towards subcellular localization, aggregate formation and subsequent pathogenicity induced by N-terminal HTT harboring polyQ stretch in pathogenic range. HYPK is a HTT-interacting chaperone which can reduce N-terminal mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity in neuronal cell lines. However, how HYPK interacts with N-terminal fragment of HTT remained unknown. Here we report that specific interaction of HYPK with HTT-N17 is crucial for the chaperone activity of HYPK. Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to formation of tinier, SDS-soluble nuclear aggregates formed by N-terminal mutant HTT. The increased cytotoxicity imparted by these tiny aggregates might be contributed due to loss of interaction with HYPK. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Choudhury K.R.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Choudhury K.R.,Indian Institute of Science | Bucha S.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Baksi S.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2016

To decipher the function(s) of HYPK, a huntingtin (HTT)-interacting protein with chaperone-like activity, we had previously identified 36 novel interacting partners of HYPK. Another 13 proteins were known earlier to be associated with HYPK. On the basis of analysis of the interacting partners of HYPK, it has been shown that HYPK may participate in diverse cellular functions relevant to Huntington's disease. In the present study, we identified additional 5 proteins by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization. As of now we have 54 primary interactors of HYPK. From the database we collected 1026 unique proteins (secondary interactors) interacting with these 54 primary HYPK interacting partners. We observed that 10 primary and 91 secondary interacting proteins of HYPK are associated with two types of autophagy processes. We next tested the hypothesis that the hub, HYPK, might itself be involved in autophagy. Using mouse striatal STHdhQ7/HdhQ7 cell lines, we observed that over expression of HYPK significantly increased background cellular autophagy, while knock down of endogenous HYPK decreased the autophagy level as detected by altered LC3I conversion, BECN1 expression, cleavage of GFP from LC3-GFP, ATG5-ATG12 conjugate formation and expression of transcription factors like Tfeb, Srebp2 and Zkscan3. This result shows that HYPK, possibly with its interacting partners, induces autophagy. We further observed that N-terminal mutant HTT reduced the cellular levels of LC3II and BECN1, which could be recovered significantly upon over expression of HYPK in these cells. This result further confirms that HYPK could also be involved in clearing mutant HTT aggregates by augmenting autophagy pathway. © 2016

Mukherjee S.,National Institute of Biomedical Genomics | Mukherjee S.,Biomedical Genomics Center | Ganguli D.,National Institute of Biomedical Genomics | Majumder P.P.,National Institute of Biomedical Genomics
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are directly involved in host-pathogen interactions. Polymorphisms in these genes are associated with susceptibility to infectious diseases. To understand the influence of environment and pathogen diversity on the evolution of TLR genes, we have undertaken a large-scale population-genetic study. Our study included two hunter-gatherer tribal populations and one urbanized nontribal population from India with distinct ethnicities (n=266) and 14 populations inhabiting four different continents (n=1,092). From the data on DNA sequences of cell-surface TLR genes, we observed an excess of rare variants and a large number of low frequency haplotypes in each gene. Nonsynonymous changes were few in every population and the commonly used statistical tests for detecting natural selection provided evidence of purifying selection. The evidence of purifying selection acting on the cell-surface TLRs of the innate immune system is not consistent with Haldane's theory of coevolution of immunity genes, at least of innateimmunity genes, with pathogens. Our study provides evidence that genes of the cell-surface TLRs, that is, TLR2 and TLR4, have been so optimized to defend the host against microbial infections that new mutations in these genes are quickly eliminated. © The Author(s) 2014.

Bucha S.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Mukhopadhyay D.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Bhattacharyya N.P.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Bhattacharyya N.P.,Biomedical Genomics Center
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2015

Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by the increase in CAG repeats beyond 36 at the exon1 of the gene Huntingtin (HTT). Among the various dysfunctions of biological processes in HD, transcription deregulation due to abnormalities in actions of transcription factors has been considered to be one of the important pathological conditions. In addition, deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression has been described in HD. Earlier, expression of microRNA-214 (miR-214) has been shown to increase in HD cell models and target HTT gene; the expression of the later being inversely correlated to that of miR-214. In the present communication, we observed that the expressions of several HTT co-expressed genes are modulated by exogenous expression of miR-214 or by its mutant. Among several HTT co-expressed genes, MFN2 was shown to be the direct target of miR-214. Exogenous expression of miR-214, repressed the expression of MFN2, increased the distribution of fragmented mitochondria and altered the distribution of cells in different phases of cell cycle. In summary, we have shown that increased expression of miR-214 observed in HD cell model could target MFN2, altered mitochondrial morphology and deregulated cell cycle. Inhibition of miR-214 could be a possible target of intervention in HD pathogenesis. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.

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