Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group

Engineering, United States

Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group

Engineering, United States
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Clark T.,University of California at Davis | Hawkins D.,Section of Neurobiology | Hawkins D.,Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group | Hawkins D.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2010

During human movement, muscle activation and limb movement result in subtle changes in muscle mass distribution. Muscle mass redistribution can affect limb inertial properties and limb dynamics, but it is not currently known to what extent. The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) how physiological alterations of muscle and tendon length affect limb inertial characteristics, and (2) how such changes affect dynamic simulations of human movement. To achieve these objectives, a digital model of a human leg, custom software, and Software for interactive musculoskeletal modeling were used to simulate mass redistribution of muscle-tendon structures within a limb segment during muscle activation and joint movement. Thigh and shank center of mass and moments of inertia for different muscle activation and joint configurations were determined and compared. Limb inertial parameters representing relaxed muscles and fully active muscles were input into a simulated straight-leg movement to evaluate the effect inertial parameter variations could have on movement simulation results. Muscle activation and limb movement altered limb segment center of mass and moments of inertia by less than 0.04. cm and 1.2%, respectively. These variations in limb inertial properties resulted in less than 0.01% change in maximum angular velocity for a simulated straight-leg hip flexion task. These data demonstrate that, for the digital human leg model considered, assuming static quantities for segment center of masses and moments of inertia in movement simulations appear reasonable and induce minimal errors in simulated movement dynamics. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Neugebauer J.M.,Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group | Hawkins D.A.,Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group | Hawkins D.A.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2012

The purposes of this study were (1) determine if youth peak Achilles tendon (AT) strain, peak AT stress, and AT stiffness, measured during an isometric plantar flexion, differed after six months (mos) of growth, and (2) determine if sex, physical activity level (Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ-C)), and/or growth rate (GR) were related to these properties. AT stress, strain, and stiffness were quantified in 20 boys (13.47±0.81 years) and 22 girls (11.18±0.82 years) at 2 times (0 and 6 mos). GR (change in height in 6 mos) was not significantly different between boys and girls (3.5±1.4 and 3.4±1.1cm/6 mos respectively). Peak AT strain and stiffness (mean 3.8±0.4% and 128.9±153.6N/mm, respectively) did not differ between testing sessions or sex. Peak AT stress (22.1±2.4 and 24.0±2.1MPa at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) did not differ between sex and increased significantly at 6 mos due to a significant decrease in AT cross-sectional area (40.6±1.3 and 38.1±1.6mm2 at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) with no significant difference in peak AT force (882.3±93.9 and 900.3± 65.5N at 0 and 6 mos, respectively). Peak AT stress was significantly greater in subjects with greater PAQ-C scores (9.1% increase with 1 unit increase in PAQ-C score) and smaller in subjects with faster GRs (13.8% decrease with 1cm/6 mos increase in GR). These results indicate that of the AT mechanical properties quantified, none differed between sex, and only peak AT stress significantly differed after 6 months and was related to GR and physical activity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Journal of biomechanics | Year: 2012

The purposes of this study were (1) determine if youth peak Achilles tendon (AT) strain, peak AT stress, and AT stiffness, measured during an isometric plantar flexion, differed after six months (mos) of growth, and (2) determine if sex, physical activity level (Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ-C)), and/or growth rate (GR) were related to these properties. AT stress, strain, and stiffness were quantified in 20 boys (13.470.81 years) and 22 girls (11.180.82 years) at 2 times (0 and 6 mos). GR (change in height in 6 mos) was not significantly different between boys and girls (3.51.4 and 3.41.1cm/6 mos respectively). Peak AT strain and stiffness (mean 3.80.4% and 128.9153.6N/mm, respectively) did not differ between testing sessions or sex. Peak AT stress (22.12.4 and 24.02.1MPa at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) did not differ between sex and increased significantly at 6 mos due to a significant decrease in AT cross-sectional area (40.61.3 and 38.11.6mm(2) at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) with no significant difference in peak AT force (882.393.9 and 900.3 65.5N at 0 and 6 mos, respectively). Peak AT stress was significantly greater in subjects with greater PAQ-C scores (9.1% increase with 1 unit increase in PAQ-C score) and smaller in subjects with faster GRs (13.8% decrease with 1cm/6 mos increase in GR). These results indicate that of the AT mechanical properties quantified, none differed between sex, and only peak AT stress significantly differed after 6 months and was related to GR and physical activity.

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