Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center

Torrance, CA, United States

Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center

Torrance, CA, United States

Time filter

Source Type

Shen H.,University of California at Los Angeles | French B.A.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center | Liu H.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center | Tillman B.C.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Experimental and Molecular Pathology | Year: 2014

Inflammation has been suggested as a mechanism underlying the development of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). The activation of the complement system plays an important role in inflammation. Although it has been shown that ethanol-induced activation of the complement system contributes to the pathophysiology of ethanol-induced liver injury in mice, whether ethanol consumption activates the complement system in the human liver has not been investigated. Using antibodies against C1q, C3, and C5, the immunoreactivity of the complement system in patients with AH was examined by immunohistochemistry and quantified by morphometric image analysis. The immunoreactivity intensity of C1q, C3, and C5 in patients with AH was significantly higher than that seen in normal controls. Further, the gene expression of C1q, C3, and C5 was examined using real-time PCR. There were increases in the levels of C1q and C5, but not C3 mRNA in AH. Moreover, the immunoreactivity of C5a receptor (C5aR) also increased in AH. To explore the functional implication of the activation of the complement system in AH, we examined the colocalization of C5aR in Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) forming balloon hepatocytes. C5aR was focally overexpressed in the MDB forming cells. Collectively, our study suggests that alcohol consumption increases the activity of the complement system in the liver cells, which contributes to the inflammation-associated pathogenesis of AH. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center and University of California at Los Angeles
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Experimental and molecular pathology | Year: 2015

Epigenetic regulation of gene expression has been suggested to play a critical role in the development of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Although it has been shown that ethanol-induced damage in hepatocytes resulted from a change in methionine metabolism causes global gene expression changes in hepatocytes, the role of the epigenetic machinery in such processes has, however, been barely investigated. 5-Methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are major molecules of epigenetic DNA modification that play an important role in the control of gene expression. Using antibodies against 5mC and 5hmC, the DNA methylation in patients with AH was examined by immunohistochemistry and quantified by morphometric image analysis. The immunoreactivity intensity of 5mC in patients with AH was significantly higher than that seen in normal controls. While there was a trend of decreased 5-hmC in patients with AH, the difference between patients with AH and normal control was not significant. Our study suggests that aberrant DNA-methylation is associated with pathogenesis of AH.


PubMed | Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center, Emmaus Life science Inc. and Emmaus Medical
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The ocular surface | Year: 2015

This study investigates the therapeutic effects of carrier-free cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) transplantation for experimentally induced severe rabbit limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Buccal biopsies were performed and CAOMECS were cultured and transplanted onto diseased corneas. Six-month follow-up examinations indicated that three out of four corneas with CAOMECS grafts showed a decrease in superficial vascularization, while almost all the sham corneas didnot show a similar decrease. H&E staining of corneas showed that CAOMECS transplantation reduced blood vessel invasion of central cornea, reduced lymphocyte infiltration and fibrotic tissue formation. DeltaNp63 stained markedly in the grafted cornea and to a lesser extent in the sham corneas. PCNA and Ki-67 staining were much greater in the sham corneas than in the grafted and normal corneas. K3 and K13 staining demonstrated that CAOMECS transplanted corneas had much more K3- and less K13- positive cells compared to the sham corneas. Muc5AC was decreased in the central region of grafted corneas. Very little alpha-smooth muscle actin (aSMA) staining was detected in grafted corneas, while therewas a greater amount of aSMA staining in sham corneas. Staining for anti-angiogenic factor TIMP -3 was also increased, and pro-angiogenic factor MMP-3 was decreased in grafted corneas compared to sham corneas. Our results indicate that CAOMECS grafts resulted in improved epithelialization of the corneal surface and decreased vascularization and fibrosis of the diseased corneas.


Xu A.,University of Western Ontario | Durosier L.D.,University of Montréal | Ross G. M.G.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center | Hammond R.,University of Western Ontario | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Neurology | Year: 2014

Objective: Repetitive umbilical cord occlusions (UCOs) in ovine fetus leading to severe acidemia result in adaptive shut-down of electrocortical activity [electrocorticogram (ECoG)] as well as systemic and brain inflammation. We hypothesized that the fetuses with earlier ECoG shut-down as a neuroprotective mechanism in response to repetitive UCOs will show less brain inflammation and, moreover, that chronic hypoxia will impact this relationship. Methods: Near-term fetal sheep were chronically instrumented with ECoG leads, vascular catheters, and a cord occluder and then underwent repetitive UCOs for up to 4 h or until fetal arterial pH was <7.00. Eight animals, hypoxic prior to the UCOs (SaO2 <55%), were allowed to recover 24 h post insult, while 14 animals, 5 of whom also were chronically hypoxic, were allowed to recover 48 h post insult, after which brains were perfusion-fixed. Time of ECoG shut-down and corresponding pH were noted, as well as time to then reach pH <7.00 (?T). Microglia (MG) were counted as a measure of inflammation in gray matter layers 4-6 (GM4-6) where most ECoG activity is generated. Results are reported as mean ± SEM for p < 0.05. Results: Repetitive UCOs resulted in worsening acidosis over 3-4 h with arterial pH decreasing to 6.97 ± 0.02 all UCO groups' animals, recovering to baseline by 24 h. ECoG shut-down occurred 52 ± 7 min before reaching pH <7.00 at pH 7.23 ± 0.02 across the animal groups. MG counts were inversely correlated to ?T in 24 h recovery animals (R = -0.84), as expected. This was not the case in normoxic 48 h recovery animals, and, surprisingly, in hypoxic 48 h recovery animals, this relationship was reversed (R = 0.90). Conclusion: Adaptive brain shut-down during labor-like worsening acidemia counteracts neuroinflammation in a hypoxia- and time-dependent manner. © 2014 Xu, Durosier, Ross, Hammond, Richardson and Frasch.


PubMed | Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center, University of Western Ontario and University of Montréal
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of obstetrics and gynecology | Year: 2016

Due to limitations of technology, clinicians are typically unable to determine if human fetuses are normoxic or moderately, chronically hypoxic. Risk factors for chronic hypoxia include fetal growth restriction, which is associated with an increased incidence of oligohydramnios and thus a risk for umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) and variable fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations. At delivery, fetal growth restriction infants (<3rd percentile) have nearly twice the incidence of low Apgar scores and umbilical pH <7.0. Despite the risks of oligohydramnios and intermittent UCO, there is little understanding of the acid/base responses rates of chronically hypoxic fetuses to variable FHR decelerations as might occur during human labor.We sought to compare the increase in base deficit (BD) among chronically hypoxic as compared to normoxic ovine fetuses in response to simulated mild, moderate, and severe variable FHR decelerations.Near-term ovine fetuses were chronically prepared with brachial artery catheters and an inflatable umbilical cuff occluder. Following a recovery period, normoxic (n = 9) and spontaneously hypoxic (n = 5) fetuses were identified (arterial O2 saturation 55%). Both animal groups underwent graded, 1-minute occlusions every 2.5 minutes with 1 hour of mild (30 beats/min [bpm] decrease from baseline), 1 hour of moderate (60 bpm decrease from baseline), and up to 2 hours of severe (90 bpm decrease from baseline) variable FHR decelerations until fetal arterial pH reached 7.00, when occlusions were stopped.Repetitive UCO resulted in development of acidosis (pH <7.0) in both groups. Hypoxic and normoxic fetuses demonstrated similar BD increases in response to both mild (0.39, interquartile range [IQR] 0.28-0.45 vs 0.26, IQR 0.01-0.30 mEq/L/10 min, P = .25) and severe (1.97, IQR 1.50-2.43 vs 1.51, IQR 0.97-2.45 mEq/L/10 min, P = .63) variable decelerations. However, moderate variable decelerations increased BD in hypoxic fetuses at 2.5 times the rate of normoxic fetuses (0.97, IQR 0.52-1.72 vs 0.39, IQR 0.23-0.47 mEq/L/10 min, P = .03). During the recovery period, hypoxic fetuses cleared BD slower than normoxic fetuses (0.08 0.02 vs 0.12 0.03 mEq/L/min, P = .02).In comparison to normoxic fetuses, hypoxic fetuses can more rapidly progress to significant metabolic acidosis in response to moderate FHR variable decelerations, and more slowly recover with in utero resuscitation, likely a consequence of impaired placental function and fetal physiologic responses.


Bardag-Gorce F.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center | Oliva J.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center | Wood A.,Emmaus Life science Inc. | Hoft R.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
Ocular Surface | Year: 2015

This study investigates the therapeutic effects of carrier-free cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) transplantation for experimentally induced severe rabbit limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Buccal biopsies were performed and CAOMECS were cultured and transplanted onto diseased corneas. Six-month follow-up examinations indicated that three out of four corneas with CAOMECS grafts showed a decrease in superficial vascularization, while almost all the sham corneas did not show a similar decrease. H&E staining of corneas showed that CAOMECS transplantation reduced blood vessel invasion of central cornea, reduced lymphocyte infiltration and fibrotic tissue formation. DeltaNp63 stained markedly in the grafted cornea and to a lesser extent in the sham corneas. PCNA and Ki-67 staining were much greater in the sham corneas than in the grafted and normal corneas. K3 and K13 staining demonstrated that CAOMECS transplanted corneas had much more K3- and less K13- positive cells compared to the sham corneas. Muc5AC was decreased in the central region of grafted corneas. Very little alpha-smooth muscle actin (aSMA) staining was detected in grafted corneas, while there was a greater amount of aSMA staining in sham corneas. Staining for anti-angiogenic factor TIMP -3 was also increased, and pro-angiogenic factor MMP-3 was decreased in grafted corneas compared to sham corneas. Our results indicate that CAOMECS grafts resulted in improved epithelialization of the corneal surface and decreased vascularization and fibrosis of the diseased corneas. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Oliva J.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center | French S.W.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center | Li J.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center | Bardag-Gorce F.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center
Experimental and Molecular Pathology | Year: 2012

In the present study, the beneficial effects of proteasome inhibitor treatment in reducing ethanol-induced steatosis were investigated. A microarray analysis was performed on the liver of rats injected with PS-341 (Bortezomib, Velcade®), and the results showed that proteasome inhibitor treatment significantly reduced the mRNA expression of SREBP-1c, and the downstream lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid synthesis. ELOVL6, which is responsible for fatty acids long chain elongation, was also significantly downregulated by proteasome inhibitor treatment. Moreover, PS-341 administration significantly reduced the expression of acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), enzyme involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. Finally, PS-341 was found to downregulate the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoenzymeA synthase (HMG-CoA synthase) that is responsible for cholesterol synthesis. Proteasome inhibitor was also found to play a role in intestinal lipid adsorption because apolipoproteins A (apoA-I, apoAII, apoA-IV and ApoCIII) were downregulated by proteasome inhibitor treatment, especially ApoA-II that is known to be a marker of alcohol consumption. Proteasome inhibitor treatment also decreased apobec-1 complementation factor (ACF) leading to lower level of editing and production of ApoB protein. Moreover apolipoprotein C-III, a major component of chylomicrons was significantly downregulated. However, lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) and High density lipoprotein binding protein (Hdlbp) mRNA levels were increased by proteasome inhibitor treatment. These results suggested that proteasome inhibitor treatment could be used to reduce the alcohol-enhanced lipogenesis and alcohol-induced liver steatosis. A morphologic analysis, performed on the liver of rats fed ethanol for one month and treated with PS-341, showed that proteasome inhibitor treatment significantly decreased ethanol-induced liver steatosis. SREBP-1c, FAS and ACC were increased by ethanol feeding alone, but were significantly decreased when proteasome inhibitor was administered to rats fed ethanol. Our results also show that both mRNA and protein levels of these lipogenic enzymes, up regulated by ethanol, were then downregulated when proteasome inhibitor was administered to rats fed ethanol. It was also confirmed that alcohol feeding caused an increase in AGPAT and DGAT, which was prevented by proteasome inhibitor treatment of the animal fed ethanol. Chronic alcohol feeding did not affect the gene expression of HMG-CoA synthase. However, PS341 administration significantly reduced the HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels, confirming the results obtained with the microarray analysis. C/EBP transcription factors alpha (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha) has been shown to positively regulate SREBP-1c mRNA expression, thus regulating lipogenesis. Proteasome inhibition caused a decrease in C/EBP alpha mRNA expression, indicating that C/EBP downregulation may be the mechanism by which proteasome inhibitor treatment reduced lipogenesis. In conclusion, our results indicate that proteasome activity is not only involved in downregulating fatty acid synthesis and triacylglycerol synthesis, but also cholesterol synthesis and intestinal lipid adsorption. Proteasome inhibitor, administrated at a non-toxic low dose, played a beneficial role in reducing lipogenesis caused by chronic ethanol feeding and these beneficial effects are obtained because of the specificity and reversibility of the proteasome inhibitor used. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of obstetrics and gynecology | Year: 2013

Recent guidelines classify variable decelerations without detail as to degree of depth. We hypothesized that variable deceleration severity is highly correlated with fetal base deficit accumulation.Seven near-term fetal sheep underwent a series of graded umbilical cord occlusions resulting in mild (30 bpm decrease), moderate (60 bpm decrease), or severe (decrease of 90 bpm to baseline <70 bpm) variable decelerations at 2.5 minute intervals.Mild, moderate, and severe variable decelerations increased fetal base deficit (0.21 0.03, 0.27 0.03, and 0.54 0.09 mEq/L per minute) in direct proportion to severity. During recovery, fetal base deficit cleared at 0.12 mEq/L per minute.In this model, ovine fetuses can tolerate repetitive mild and moderate variable decelerations with minimal change in base deficit and lactate. In contrast, repetitive severe variable decelerations may result in significant base deficit increases, dependent on frequency. Modified guideline differentiation of mild/moderate vs severe variable decelerations may aid in the interpretation of fetal heart rate tracings and optimization of clinical management paradigms.


Liu H.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center | Li J.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center | Tillman B.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center | French B.A.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center | French S.W.,Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center
Experimental and Molecular Pathology | Year: 2014

Activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling which stimulates inflammatory and proliferative pathways is the key element in the pathogenesis of Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) in mice fed DDC. However, little is known as to how TLR signaling is regulated in MDB formation during chronic liver disease development. The first systematic study of TLR signaling pathway transcript regulation in human archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies with MDB formation is presented here. When compared to the activation of Toll-like signaling in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients, striking similarities and obvious differences were observed. Similar TLRs (TLR3 and TLR4, etc.), TLR downstream adaptors (MyD88 and TRIF, etc.) and transcript factors (NFκB and IRF7, etc.) were all upregulated in the patients' livers. MyD88, TLR3 and TLR4 were significantly induced in the livers of AH and NASH compared to normal subjects, while TRIF and IRF7 mRNA were only slightly upregulated in AH patients. This is a different pathway from the induction of the TLR4-MyD88-independent pathway in the AH and NASH patients with MDBs present. Importantly, chemokine receptor 4 and 7 (CXCR4/7) mRNAs were found to be induced in the patients livers in FAT10 positive hepatocytes. The CXCR7 pathway was significantly upregulated in patients with AH and the CXCR4 was markedly upregulated in patients with NASH, indicating that CXCR4/7 is crucial in liver MDB formation. This data constitutes the first demonstration of the upregulation of the MyD88-dependent TLR4/NFκB pathway in AH and NASH where MDBs formed, via the NFκB-CXCR4/7 pathway, and provides further insight into the mechanism of MDB formation in human liver diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Experimental and molecular pathology | Year: 2014

Activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling which stimulates inflammatory and proliferative pathways is the key element in the pathogenesis of Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) in mice fed DDC. However, little is known as to how TLR signaling is regulated in MDB formation during chronic liver disease development. The first systematic study of TLR signaling pathway transcript regulation in human archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies with MDB formation is presented here. When compared to the activation of Toll-like signaling in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients, striking similarities and obvious differences were observed. Similar TLRs (TLR3 and TLR4, etc.), TLR downstream adaptors (MyD88 and TRIF, etc.) and transcript factors (NFB and IRF7, etc.) were all upregulated in the patients livers. MyD88, TLR3 and TLR4 were significantly induced in the livers of AH and NASH compared to normal subjects, while TRIF and IRF7 mRNA were only slightly upregulated in AH patients. This is a different pathway from the induction of the TLR4-MyD88-independent pathway in the AH and NASH patients with MDBs present. Importantly, chemokine receptor 4 and 7 (CXCR4/7) mRNAs were found to be induced in the patients livers in FAT10 positive hepatocytes. The CXCR7 pathway was significantly upregulated in patients with AH and the CXCR4 was markedly upregulated in patients with NASH, indicating that CXCR4/7 is crucial in liver MDB formation. This data constitutes the first demonstration of the upregulation of the MyD88-dependent TLR4/NFB pathway in AH and NASH where MDBs formed, via the NFB-CXCR4/7 pathway, and provides further insight into the mechanism of MDB formation in human liver diseases.

Loading Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center collaborators
Loading Biomedical at Harbor Medical Center collaborators