Bucheon, South Korea
Bucheon, South Korea

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Im J.H.,Seoul National University | Lee H.,Seoul National University | Lee H.,Korea Polar Research Institute KOPRI | Kim J.,Seoul National University | And 4 more authors.
Molecules and Cells | Year: 2012

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is activated by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Salt stress induces two well-characterized MAPK activating signaling molecules, phosphatidic acid (PA) via phospholipase D and phospholipase C, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase. In our previous study, the activity of soybean MAPK, GMK1 was strongly induced within 5 min of 300 mM NaCl treatment and this early activity was regulated by PA. In this study, we focused on the regulation of GMK1 at the later stage of the salt stress, because its activity was strongly persistent for up to 30 min. H2O2 activated GMK1 even in the presence of PA generation inhibitors, but GMK1 activity was greatly decreased in the presence of diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase after 5 min of the treatment. On the contrary, the n-butanol and neomycin reduced GMK1 activity within 5 min of the treatment. Thus, GMK1 activity may be sustained by H2O2 10 min after the treatment. Further, GMK1 was translocated into the nucleus 60 min after NaCl treatment. In the relationship between GMK1 and ROS generation, ROS generation was reduced by SB202190, a MAPK inhibitor, but was increased in protoplast overexpressing TESD-GMKK1. However, these effects were occurred at prolonged time of NaCl treatment. These data suggest that GMK1 indirectly regulates ROS generation. Taken together, we propose that soybean GMK1 is dually regulated by PA and H2O2 at a time dependant manner and translocated to the nucleus by the salt stress signal. © The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology.


Nam K.-H.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Shin H.J.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Pack I.-S.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Park J.-H.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Plant OMICS | Year: 2015

Metabolite profiling of transgenic crops is useful when evaluating the intended and unintended effects of genetic modifications. Our study objective was to investigate variations in metabolites from drought-tolerant transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) that over-expresses AtCYP78A7, a gene encoding cytochrome P450 protein. Two transgenic Lines, '10B-5' and '18A-4', plus the wild-type 'Hwayoung', were cultivated under either well-watered or water-deficit conditions in a rainout shelter. Their shoots were collected at the tillering, heading, and ripening stages and polar extracts were subsequently analyzed by 1H-NMR and GC-MS. Principal component analysis revealed that the metabolite profiles could be clearly distinguished during those stages. Soil-water conditions also contributed to the variation in profiles. However, a marked discrimination of metabolites between transgenic and non-transgenic rice was apparent only under water-deficit conditions at the heading stage. This was mainly a result of differences in the sugar-related NMR profiles among genotypes. Our data suggested that the genetic contribution to metabolite profiles is constrained by growth stage and water status. In addition, sugar content is of great importance when separating metabolite profiles in shoots from rice plants that over-express AtCYP78A7.


Nam K.-H.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Kim D.-Y.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Shin H.J.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Nam K.J.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Comparing well-watered versus deficit conditions, we evaluated the chemical composition of grains harvested from wild-type (WT) and drought-tolerant, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.). The latter had been developed by inserting AtCYP78A7, which encodes a cytochrome P450 protein. Two transgenic Lines, '10B-5' and '18A-4', and the 'Hwayoung' WT were grown under a rainout shelter. After the harvested grains were polished, their levels of key components, including proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and vitamins were analysed to determine the effect of watering system and genotype. Drought treatment significantly influenced the levels of some nutritional components in both transgenic and WT grains. In particular, the amounts of lignoceric acid and copper in the WT decreased by 12.6% and 39.5%, respectively, by drought stress, whereas those of copper and potassium in the transgenics rose by 88.1-113.3% and 10.4-11.9%, respectively, under water-deficit conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Nam K.-H.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Shin H.J.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Pack I.-S.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Park J.-H.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Drought induces a number of physiological and biochemical responses in cereals. This study was designed to examine the metabolite changes in grains of drought-tolerant transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) that overexpresses AtCYP78A7 encoding cytochrome P450 protein using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Principal component analysis showed that the 1H-NMR-based profile was clearly separated by soil water status of well-watered and water-deficit. A discrimination of metabolites between transgenic and non-transgenic grains appeared under both watering regimes. Variations in the levels of amino acids and sugars led to the discrimination of metabolites among genotypes. In particular, drought significantly enhanced the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 244.6%), fructose (155.7%), glucose (211.0%), glycerol (57.2%), glycine (65.8%) and aminoethanol (192.4%) in the transgenic grains compared with the non-transgenic control grains. CONCLUSION: These changes in amounts of metabolites may assist in improving drought tolerance in transgenic rice by playing crucial roles in stress-responsive pathways including GABA biosynthesis, sucrose metabolism and antioxidant defenses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Nam K.-H.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Nam K.J.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | An J.H.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Jeong S.-C.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | And 3 more authors.
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Nutritional composition is the main consideration in the safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops. In this study, the key nutrients in drought-tolerant rice that had been generated by the insertion of AtCYP78A7 encoding cytochrome P450 protein were analyzed. Results were compared with those obtained from its non-transgenic counterpart and other commercial rice. When transgenic rice lines 10B-5 and 18A-4 were compared with the non-transgenic counterpart, no significant differences were found in their contents of proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins. Except for fiber contents and levels of vitamin B2, most of the measured values fit within the reference ranges established for other commercial rice. These results indicate that the key nutritional composition of drought-tolerant transgenic rice is substantially equivalent to its non-transgenic counterpart. Therefore, insertion of AtCYP78A7 to improve drought tolerance does not change the constitution and quality of key nutrients in brown rice. © 2013 The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Kim S.-C.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science | Kim H.B.,Biomedic Co. | Kim H.B.,Jeju National University | Joa J.-H.,Research Institute of Climate Change and Agriculture | Song K.J.,Jeju National University
Journal of Plant Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Kiwifruit is a new fruit crop that was commercialized in the late 1970s. Recently, its cultivation and consumption have increased rapidly worldwide. Kiwifruit is a dioecious, deciduous, and climbing plant having fruit with hairs and various flesh colors and a variation in ploidy level; however, the industry consists of very simple cultivars or genotypes. The need for efficient cultivar improvement together with the evolutional and biological perspectives based on unique plant characteristics, have recently encouraged genome analysis and bioinformatics application. The draft genome sequence and chloroplast genome sequence of kiwifruit were released in 2013 and 2015, respectively; and gene annotation has been in progress. Recently, transcriptome analysis has shifted from previous ESTs analysis to the RNA-seq platform for intensive exploration of controlled genetic expression and gene discovery involved in fruit ascorbic acid biosynthesis, flesh coloration, maturation, and vine bacterial canker tolerance. For improving conventional breeding efficiency, molecular marker development and genetic linkage map construction have advanced from basic approaches using RFLP, RAPD, and AFLP to the development of NGS-based SSR and SNP markers linked to agronomically important traits and the construction of highly saturated linkage maps. However, genome and transcriptome studies have been limited in Korea. In the near future, kiwifruit genome and transcriptome studies are expected to translate to the practical application of molecular breeding. © Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology.


Cho S.,Chung - Ang University | Lee D.G.,Chung - Ang University | Jung Y.-S.,Yeong Gwang Agricultural Technology Center | Kim H.B.,Biomedic Co. | And 2 more authors.
Natural Product Sciences | Year: 2016

Phytochemicals were isolated from leaves of the fiber crop, ramie (Boehmeria nivea, Bn), using open column chromatography and medium pressure liquid chromatography. Their structures were identified as β-sitosterol, (−)-loliolide, rutin, and pyrimidinedione by MS, 1H-, and 13C-NMR spectroscopic analysis. Among them, (−)-loliolide was isolated for the first time from B. nivea. A content analysis of (−)-loliolide in B. nivea collected from different regions and harvest times was conducted by HPLC. The highest content of (−)-loliolide was found in Bn-23 harvested in September. These results will be helpful to use the plant which harvest in September as a high content phytochemical additive in food, health supplements, and medicinal products. © 2016 Korean Society of Pharmacognosy. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Biomedic Co. and Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2014

Comparing well-watered versus deficit conditions, we evaluated the chemical composition of grains harvested from wild-type (WT) and drought-tolerant, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.). The latter had been developed by inserting AtCYP78A7, which encodes a cytochrome P450 protein. Two transgenic Lines, 10B-5 and 18A-4, and the Hwayoung WT were grown under a rainout shelter. After the harvested grains were polished, their levels of key components, including proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and vitamins were analysed to determine the effect of watering system and genotype. Drought treatment significantly influenced the levels of some nutritional components in both transgenic and WT grains. In particular, the amounts of lignoceric acid and copper in the WT decreased by 12.6% and 39.5%, respectively, by drought stress, whereas those of copper and potassium in the transgenics rose by 88.1-113.3% and 10.4-11.9%, respectively, under water-deficit conditions.


Roh K.H.,National Academy of Agricultural Science | Kang B.W.,Chungnam National University | Kim H.B.,Biomedic Co. | Kim H.B.,Jeju National University | And 3 more authors.
Applied Biological Chemistry | Year: 2016

Cysteine, as well as its precursors and derivatives, plays important roles in plant development and stress responses. In plants, a diverse range of reactions affecting cysteine content are catalyzed by the β-substituted alanine synthase (BSAS) enzyme family. Individual BSAS family members use similar reaction mechanisms involving pyridoxal phosphate cofactors and show catalytic preferences for biosynthesis, degradation, or modification of the cysteine amino acid. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) of the Brassicaceae family, four distinct biochemical activities are characterized at the gene level, namely, O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase, β-cyanoalanine synthase, l-cysteine desulfhydrase, and S-sulfocysteine synthase activities. Reverse genetic approaches in Arabidopsis were used to elucidate the physiological roles of metabolites of cysteine metabolism (O-acetylserine, sulfide, cysteine, cyanide, and S-sulfocysteine) during the processes of root hair development, pollen tube germination, heavy metal tolerance, defense responses, stomatal closure, and autophagy. Key catalytic residues determining reaction specificities in different BSAS enzymes are being identified, along with the roles of macromolecular complexes involving BSAS. The biochemical properties of BSAS active sites are being investigated in various organisms, including plants, for possible application to the development of new biological materials and drugs. Systematic and comparative genomic studies of BSAS enzymes in Brassica plants, close relatives of Arabidopsis, requiring high cysteine production for optimum growth and disease resistance, will be useful for the future study of the diversification of BSAS and the biotechnological improvement of these important crop plants. © 2016, The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry.


PubMed | Biomedic Co. and Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the science of food and agriculture | Year: 2016

Drought induces a number of physiological and biochemical responses in cereals. This study was designed to examine the metabolite changes in grains of drought-tolerant transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) that overexpresses AtCYP78A7 encoding cytochrome P450 protein using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.Principal component analysis showed that the (1)H-NMR-based profile was clearly separated by soil water status of well-watered and water-deficit. A discrimination of metabolites between transgenic and non-transgenic grains appeared under both watering regimes. Variations in the levels of amino acids and sugars led to the discrimination of metabolites among genotypes. In particular, drought significantly enhanced the levels of -aminobutyric acid (GABA, 244.6%), fructose (155.7%), glucose (211.0%), glycerol (57.2%), glycine (65.8%) and aminoethanol (192.4%) in the transgenic grains compared with the non-transgenic control grains.These changes in amounts of metabolites may assist in improving drought tolerance in transgenic rice by playing crucial roles in stress-responsive pathways including GABA biosynthesis, sucrose metabolism and antioxidant defenses.

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