Biomechanics Research and Consulting LLC

Charlottesville, VA, United States

Biomechanics Research and Consulting LLC

Charlottesville, VA, United States
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Lessley D.J.,University of Virginia | Lessley D.J.,Biomechanics Research and Consulting LLC | Crandall J.,University of Virginia | Frederick E.C.,Exeter Research Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Footwear Science | Year: 2016

In American football, hyper-dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal (first MTP) joint is the predominant mechanism of first MTP joint sprains (turf toe). The risk of acute first MTP joint sprain has been found to increase as first MTP joint angle increases. The bending resistance of the shoe dictates the proportion of an externally applied load that can be passed into the shoe (i.e. not through the first MTP joint) and thus may influence the magnitude of flexion imparted to the first MTP joint and hence the risk of injury. The current study introduces the Football American Shoe Tester (FAST), a flexion apparatus designed to measure the bending resistance of American football shoes at angles of forefoot dorsiflexion from 15° to 75°. The FAST was used to quantify the forefoot bending behaviour of a range of American football shoes. Thirty different models of US size 12 shoes were tested. Linearized bending stiffness ranged from 0.27 to 0.8 Nm/deg, while peak torque ranged from 11.8 to 25.5 N m. The testing revealed characteristic differences in torque-angle response across shoe models and quantified the extent of shoe stiffening at angles of dorsiflexion beyond those studied in the past. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Crandall J.,University of Virginia | Crandall J.,Biomechanics Research and Consulting LLC | Frederick E.C.,Exeter Research Inc. | Kent R.,University of Virginia | And 3 more authors.
Footwear Science | Year: 2015

In American football, hyper-dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal (1 MTP) joint is the predominant mechanism of 1 MTP sprains (turf toe). The risk of acute 1 MTP sprain has been found to increase as 1 MTP angle increases. The bending resistance of the shoe dictates the proportion of an externally applied load that can be passed into the shoe (i.e., not through the 1 MTP joint) and thus influences the magnitude of flexion imparted to the 1 MTP joint. This study quantified the forefoot bending resistance of a range of cleated American football shoes. A total of 21 pairs of size 12 shoes were dynamically tested over flexion angles from 30° to 90°. Bending stiffness ranged from 0.10 to 0.35 Nm/deg, while peak torque ranged from 5.1 to 16.6 Nm. The relationship between torque and flexion angle was nearly linear for all of the shoes tested and the peak torque values were substantially lower than 1 MTP joint moments that have been measured in the human foot during athletic activities. These results suggest that an opportunity exists to better balance athletic performance and acute 1 MTP joint injury risk by incorporating non-linearity into the torque-angle characteristic of football cleats, such that the proportion of external load borne by the shoe increases at flexion angles above 60°. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

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