Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC

Long Beach, CA, United States

Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC

Long Beach, CA, United States

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Welcher J.B.,University of Southern California | Welcher J.B.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Welcher J.B.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | Popovich Jr. J.M.,University of Southern California | And 4 more authors.
ASME 2010 Summer Bioengineering Conference, SBC 2010 | Year: 2010

A new sensor for spatial and temporal intra-facet pressure measurement was developed and tested. Results show the new sensor meets or exceeds the design criteria and does not exhibit the problems with curvature effects previously reported. Additional work is in progress developing more robust and spatially relevant sensors to be utilized in human lumbar cadaveric specimens. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.


Welcher J.B.,University of Southern California | Welcher J.B.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Welcher J.B.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | Popovich J.M.,University of Southern California | And 2 more authors.
Medical Engineering and Physics | Year: 2011

A new sensor array intended to accurately and directly measure spatial and time-dependent pressures within a highly curved biological intra-articular joint was developed and tested.To evaluate performance of the new sensor array for application within intra-articular joints generally, and specifically to fit within the relatively restrictive space of the lumbar spine facet joint, geometric constraints of length, width, thickness and sensor spatial resolution were evaluated. Additionally, the effects of sensor array curvature, frequency response, linearity, drift, hysteresis, repeatability, and total system cost were assessed.The new sensor array was approximately 0.6. mm in thickness, scalable to below the nominal 12. mm wide by 15 high lumbar spine facet joint size, offered no inherent limitations on the number or spacing of the sensors with less than 1.7% cross talk with sensor immediately adjacent to one another. No difference was observed in sensor performance down to a radius of curvature of 7. mm and a 0.66 ± 0.97% change in sensor sensitivity was observed at a radius of 5.5. mm. The sensor array had less than 0.07. dB signal loss up to 5.5. Hz, linearity was 0.58 ± 0.13% full scale (FS), drift was less than 0.2% FS at 250. s and less than 0.6% FS at 700. s, hysteresis was 0.78 ± 0.18%. Repeatability was excellent with a coefficient of variation less than 2% at pressures between 0 and 1.000. MPa. Total system cost was relatively small as standard commercially available data acquisition systems could be utilized, with no specialized software, and individual sensors within an array can be replaced as needed.The new sensor array had small and scalable geometry and very acceptable intrinsic performance including minimal to no alteration in performance at physiologically relevant ranges of joint curvature. © 2011 IPEM.


Vandiver W.,01 Civic Center Drive West | Ikram I.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | Randles B.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

The accuracy of pre-crash data recorded in an Airbag Control Module (ACM) with Event Data Recorder (EDR) functionality has been studied and quantified for vehicles from several vehicle manufacturers. Most published research has involved vehicles with accessible data that can be downloaded via commercially available crash data retrieval equipment. Some Mitsubishi vehicles, including the 2009 Mitsubishi Lancer GTS, are capable of recording crash data that can be accessed only by the manufacturer. The accuracy of such data becomes important when it is intended to be used as part of a collision analysis. The pre-crash speed data recorded by a 2009 Mitsubishi Lancer vehicle was evaluated by generating artificial deployment events while running the vehicle on a 4-wheel dynamometer and simultaneously capturing data through the OBDII port. The tests were run at speeds up to approximately 145 kilometers per hour (90 miles per hour). The data from these tests illustrate the specific characteristics of the recording time and sample rate for the Mitsubishi Lancer ACM (i.e., 2.3 seconds of pre-crash data recorded at 100 millisecond intervals) and showed consistent results. Copyright © 2013 SAE International.


Vandiver W.,01 Civic Center Drive West | Anderson R.,Biomechanics Analysis | Ikram I.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | Randles B.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | Furbish C.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

The 2012 Kia Soul was manufactured with an Airbag Control Module (ACM) with an Event Data Recorder (EDR) function to record crash related data. However, 2013 is the first model year supported by the download tool and software manufactured for Kia vehicles and distributed by GIT America, Inc. Even with the same make and model, using the Kia EDR tool to image data from an unsupported model year calls into question whether some or any of the data has been properly translated. By way of example, a method for evaluating the usability of the crash related data obtained via coverage spoofing a 2012 Kia Soul is presented. Eight vehicle-to-barrier crash tests were conducted in a 2012 Kia Soul. The Kia EDR tool was utilized to retrieve crash data from the vehicle's EDR following each test by choosing the software translation settings for a 2013 Kia Soul. The recorded and translated crash data for those tests were analyzed and compared to on-board instrumentation. The results showed that some recorded data including vehicle speed, steering input, service brake (on/off) and seat belt status were reliable but that engine throttle (%) was not. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.


Randles B.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | Voss D.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | Ikram I.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | Furbish C.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | And 2 more authors.
SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety | Year: 2014

Determination of vehicle speed at the time of impact is frequently an important factor in accident reconstruction. In many cases some evidence may indicate that the brake pedal of a striking vehicle was disengaged, and the vehicle was permitted to idle forward prior to impacting the target vehicle. This study was undertaken to analyze the kinematic response of various vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions while idling, with the transmissions in drive and the brake pedals disengaged. An array of sedans, SUV's and pickup trucks were tested under 3 roadway conditions (flat, medium slope and high slope). The vehicle responses are reported and mathematical relationships were developed to model the idle velocity profiles for flat and sloped roadway surfaces. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.


Randles B.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | Jones B.,Elliott and Jones LLC | Welcher J.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | Szabo T.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | And 2 more authors.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2010

A study was conducted to assess the relative accuracy of two measurement techniques commonly used for vehicle measurements in damaged-based accident reconstruction. The traditional technique of hands-on measurement was compared with the use of photogrammetry for measurement of targeted damaged vehicles. Three undamaged vehicles were subjected to 4 impacts, resulting in 4 damaged areas (two front, one side and one rear). The study's intent was only to examine the accuracy of each measurement technique. The influence of other confounding independent variables such as selection of measurement location on the vehicle, reference line location, and definitions of what constitutes "damage", etc. were controlled for and minimized by using predefined measurement points on the vehicles and prescribed station lines. The points on each vehicle were measured using both techniques, and compared to baseline reference measurements obtained via a TOPCON GPT-7005i prismless imaging total station. PhotoModeler was employed as the photogrammetry technique, and photographs of the post-impact vehicles were obtained using several different cameras and photographers, including an adjuster with no formal training or instruction in photographing for photogrammetric analysis. Hands-on measurements were obtained via two groups of qualified professionals in the field of accident reconstruction, with access to both the vehicles and traditional measuring equipment such as tape measures, crush jig and plumb bobs. The results found that both methods effectively measured the vehicle points, with a mean difference between the baseline and hands-on measurements of 0.6 ± 1.4 cm, and a mean difference between the baseline and photogrammetry measurements of 0.1 ± 1.0 cm. The accuracy of the photogrammetry method was found to be slightly greater than that for hands-on physical measurements. The results indicated that both physical inspection of a damaged vehicle and photogrammetric analysis from photographs are suitably accurate techniques for vehicle damage measurement, and in some cases the photogrammetric analysis may even yield superior results. Copyright © 2010 SAE International.


Suway J.A.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | Welcher J.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 has minimum performance requirements for retroreflective tape at different entrance and observation angles. In the author's preliminary research, all DOT-C2 retroreflective tape on the market is advertised as meeting and exceeding FMVSS No. 108 requirements. The authors' literature review revealed that there have been no publications quantifying the performance of commercially available DOT-C2 retroreflective tape across a wide range of entrance and observation angles. Therefore, without additional study, an accident reconstruction expert cannot know exactly how a specific type of compliant tape may perform, beyond the minimum federal requirements. In an attempt to solve this issue, the authors have quantified the performance of different types of retroreflective tape with a retroreflectometer. The authors attempted to study a range of popular, commercially available, DOT-C2 retroreflective tape. 3M 963, 3M 983, Grote, and Trucklite DOT-C2 retroreflective tape was studied. A RoadVista 932 handheld retroreflectometer was used to measure entrance angles of 0, 4, 10, 20, 30, and 45 degrees with observation angles from 0.2 to 2.0 degrees at 0.1 degree increments and an additional measurement at 0.33 degrees. As discussed in ASTM E810, each piece of tape was measured at rotation angles of 0 and 90 degrees by rotating the tape about its own retroreflector axis. It was determined that the entrance angle and the observation angle affected the performance of all of the retroreflective tapes, with less performance at higher entrance angles and/or observation angles. It was also determined that the white retroreflective tape had a higher performance than the red retroreflective tape for the tape types tested. Finally, it was determined that the performance of the tape was not symmetric across the tape's retroreflector axis and there was no pattern to the performance determined, for the tape types tested. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.


Suway J.A.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | Welcher J.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015

Accident reconstruction experts are often asked to evaluate the visibility and conspicuity of objects in the roadway. It is common for objects placed in or along the roadway, vehicles, and required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 for certain vehicles and trailers, to have red and white DOT-C2 retroreflective tape installed on several locations. Retroreflective tape is designed to reflect light back towards the light source at the same entrance angle. The authors' literature review revealed that there have been no publications quantifying the performance of commercially available DOT-C2 retroreflective tape with real world vehicles. Therefore, without additional study, an accident reconstruction expert cannot know exactly how a specific type of compliant tape would perform beyond the minimum federal requirements. In the current research, the performance of white and red DOT-C2 retroreflective tape is quantified. Using different vehicles, with differing headlight housings, bulb types, headlight height, occupant seating height, and headlight spacing, the performance of different types and manufacturers of retroreflective tape was quantified at different entrance angles. The authors attempted to study a range of popular, commercially available, DOT-C2 retroreflective tape. In this study, 3M 963, 3M 983, Grote, and Trucklite DOT-C2 retroreflective tape were used. The effect of change in observation angle and entrance angle were studied. Preliminary research was performed on the effect of measuring luminance through a vehicles windshield, which has factory tinting, versus outside of the vehicle, not through the windshield. From the current study, it was determined that the entrance angle and the observation angle affected the performance of all of the retroreflective tapes, with lower performance at higher entrance angles and/or observation angles. It was also determined that the white retroreflective tape had higher performance than the red retroreflective tape for every tape type tested. Finally, it was determined that the performance of the tape decreased when measured through the windshield of the vehicle, versus from outside of the vehicle. Copyright © 2015 SAE International.


Suway J.A.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC | Welcher J.,Biomechanical Research and Testing LLC
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016

It is extremely important to accurately depict photographs or video taken of a scene at night, when attempting to show how the subject scene appeared. It is widely understood that digital image sensors cannot capture the large dynamic range that can be seen by the human eye. Furthermore, todays commercially available printers, computer monitors, TV's or other displays cannot reproduce the dynamic range that is captured by the digital cameras. Therefore, care must be taken when presenting a photograph or video while attempting to accurately depict a subject scene. However, there are many parameters that can be altered, while taking a photograph or video, to make a subject scene either too bright or too dark. Similarly, adjustments can be made to a printer or display to make the image appear either too bright or too dark. There have been several published papers and studies dealing with how to properly capture and calibrate photographs and video of a subject scene at night. Most of these approaches have used a qualitative approach. Some methods have used contrast boards or gradients and the individual taking the photograph or video records his/her observations of what can and cannot be seen on the gradient. Then the photograph or video is calibrated so that the image matches what the initial observer could see. One prior method calibrates a CRT monitor, DLP projector and printer to produce images with similar contrast detection. Again, this approach is qualitative. This study presents a method for calibrating photographs and video, for use and display on printers, computer monitors, TV's or other displays, with a quantitative method. This method removes potential interpretation bias and provides a scientific approach for determining if a photograph or video accurately depicts the contrast of the subject scene. This is accomplished by applying a similar approach to two different methods. The first method allows for a calibrated image of an object that cannot be seen and the second method allows for a calibrated image of an object that can be seen. In both methods, this is accomplished by measuring the contrast in a scene and adjusting the image for the appropriate contrast. Since there are no, previously published, methodologies for quantitatively determining if an image accurately represents a scene, this methodology is compared to previous, qualitative methods as well as Adrian's Visibility model. © Copyright 2016 SAE International.

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