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Meyer-Losic F.,Ipsen | Newman S.P.,Imperial College London | Day J.M.,Imperial College London | Reed M.J.,Imperial College London | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Despite paclitxael's clinical success, treating hormone-refractory breast cancer remains challenging. Paclitaxel has a poor pharmacological profile, characterized by a low therapeutic index (TIX) caused by severe dose limiting toxicities, such as neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy. Consequently, new drugs are urgently required. STX140, a compound previously shown to have excellent efficacy against many tumors, is here compared to paclitaxel in three translational in vivo breast cancer models, a rat model of peripheral neuropathy, and through pharmacological testing. Three different in vivo mouse models of breast cancer were used; the metastatic 4T1 orthotopic model, the C3(1)/SV40 T-Ag model, and the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. To determine TIX and pharmacological profile of STX140, a comprehensive dosing regime was performed in mice bearing MDA-MD-231 xenografts. Finally, peripheral neuropathy was examined using a rat plantar thermal hyperalgesia model. In the 4T1 metastatic model, STX140 and paclitaxel significantly inhibited primary tumor growth and lung metastases. All C3(1)/SV40 T-Ag mice in the control and paclitaxel treated groups developed palpable mammary cancer. STX140 blocked 47% of tumors developing and significantly inhibited growth of tumors that did develop. STX140 treatment caused a significant (P>0.001) survival advantage for animals in early and late intervention groups. Conversely, in C3(1)/SV40 T-Ag mice, paclitaxel failed to inhibit tumor growth and did not increase survival time. Furthermore, paclitaxel, but not STX140, induced significant peripheral neuropathy and neutropenia. These results show that STX140 has a greater anti-cancer efficacy, TIX, and reduced neurotoxicity compared to paclitaxel in C3(1)/SV40 T-Ag mice and therefore may be of significant benefit to patients with breast cancer. © 2013 Meyer-Losic et al. Source

Gruszka A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Gruszka A.,Medical University of Lodz | Culler M.D.,Biomeasure | Melmed S.,University of California at Los Angeles
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2012

We tested effects of selective somatostatin receptor 2 (SST2) agonist BIM-23120, SST5 agonist BIM-23206 and chimeric somatostatin-dopamine molecules (SRIF/DA) BIM-23A760 and BIM-23A761 on GH and PRL secretion and gene expression in human GH/PRL-secreting pituitary tumors in vitro. In "responders" group BIM-23120 suppressed GH levels by 26±4%, BIM-23206 by 31±5%, BIM-23A760 by 23±4%, BIM-23A761 by 39±8% and D2-dopamine agonist BIM-53097 by 31±5%. Using real-time PCR we demonstrated that GH inhibition was not accompanied by decreased GH mRNA levels. PRL secretion was inhibited by BIM-23A760 (29±5%), BIM-23A761 (34±4%), BIM-23206 (26±4%) and BIM-53097 (36±2%). SRIF/DA and BIM-53097 also suppressed PRL mRNA levels. Concluding, SST2 and SST5 agonists and SRIF/DA inhibit GH secretion, but do not suppress GH gene transcription. SRIF/DA and BIM-53097 inhibit both PRL secretion and PRL gene expression. SST5 agonist inhibits PRL secretion, but does not suppress PRL gene expression. D2 affinity is crucial in SRIF/DA action on PRL gene expression. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Castaneda T.R.,Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research | Tong J.,University of Cincinnati | Datta R.,Biomeasure | Culler M.,Biomeasure | Tschop M.H.,University of Cincinnati
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2010

Ghrelin, a peptide hormone predominantly produced by the stomach, was isolated as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of growth hormone (GH) secretion and is the only circulatory hormone known to potently enhance feeding and weight gain and to regulate energy homeostasis following central and systemic administration. Therapeutic intervention with ghrelin in catabolic situations may induce a combination of enhanced food intake, increased gastric emptying and nutrient storage, coupled with an increase in GH thereby linking nutrient partitioning with growth and repair processes. These qualities have fostered the idea that ghrelin-based compounds may have therapeutic utility in treating malnutrition and wasting induced by various sub-acute and chronic disorders. Conversely, compounds that inhibit ghrelin action may be useful for the prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, impaired lipid metabolism or insulin resistance. In recent years, the effects of ghrelin on glucose homeostasis, memory function and gastrointestinal motility have attracted considerable amount of attention and revealed novel therapeutic targets in treating a wide range of pathologic conditions. Furthermore, discovery of ghrelin O-Acyltransferase has also opened new research opportunities that could lead to major understanding of ghrelin physiology. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ghrelin synthesis, secretion, mechanism of action and biological functions with an additional focus on potential for ghrelin-based pharmacotherapies. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Papageorgis P.,Boston University | Lambert A.W.,Boston University | Ozturk S.,Boston University | Gao F.,Boston University | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Breast cancer progression is associated with aberrant DNA methylation and expression of genes that control the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical step in malignant conversion. Although the genes affected have been studied, there is little understanding of how aberrant activation of the DNA methylation machinery itself occurs. Using a breast cancer cell-based model system, we found that cells that underwent EMT exhibited overactive transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling and loss of expression of the CDH1, CGN, CLDN4, and KLK10 genes as a result of hypermethylation of their corresponding promoter regions. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that activated TGFβ-Smad signaling provides an "epigenetic memory" to maintain silencing of critical genes. In support of this hypothesis, disrupting Smad signaling in mesenchymal breast cancer cells resulted in DNA demethylation and reexpression of the genes identified. This epigenetic reversal was accompanied by an acquisition of epithelial morphology and a suppression of invasive properties. Notably, disrupting TGFβ signaling decreased the DNA binding activity of DNA methyltransferase DNMT1, suggesting that failure to maintain methylation of newly synthesized DNA was the likely cause of DNA demethylation. Together, our findings reveal a hyperactive TGFβ-TGFβR-Smad2 signaling axis needed to maintain epigenetic silencing of critical EMT genes and breast cancer progression. ©2010 AACR. Source

Loffredo F.S.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Pancoast J.R.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Cai L.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Vannelli T.,Biomeasure | And 3 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatology | Year: 2014

Objective Acute articular injuries lead to an increased risk of progressive joint damage and osteoarthritis (OA), and no therapies are currently available to repair or protect the injured joint tissue. Intraarticular delivery of therapeutic proteins has been limited by their rapid clearance from the joint space and lack of retention within cartilage. The aim of this study was to test whether targeted delivery to cartilage by fusion with a heparin-binding domain would be sufficient to prolong the in vivo function of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Methods We produced a humanized and optimized recombinant HB-IGF-1 fusion protein. By injecting HB-IGF-1, IGF-1, or saline alone into the knee joints of adult Lewis rats, we tested whether fusion with a heparin-binding domain 1) altered the kinetics of retention in joint tissues, 2) prolonged functional stimulation as measured by radiolabel incorporation, and 3) enhanced efficacy in a rat model of surgically induced OA, using weekly injections. Results Fusion of heparin-binding domain with IGF-1 prolonged retention in articular and meniscal cartilage from <1 day to 8 days after injection. Unmodified IGF-1 had no functional effect 2 days after injection, whereas HB-IGF-1 stimulated meniscal cartilage at least 4 days after injection. HB-IGF-1, but not IGF-1, significantly slowed cartilage damage in a rat model of OA. Conclusion Heparin-binding domain fusions can transform rapidly cleared proteins into potential intraarticular therapies by targeting them to cartilage. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology. Source

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