Grenoble, France
Grenoble, France

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Younes I.,University of Sfax | Hajji S.,University of Sfax | Frachet V.,Joseph Fourier University | Rinaudo M.,Biomaterials Applications | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2014

Chitin was recovered through enzymatic deproteinization of the shrimp processing by-products. Different microbial and fish viscera proteases were tested for their deproteinization efficiency. High levels of protein removal of about 77. ±. 3% and 78. ±. 2% were recorded using Bacillus mojavensis A21 and Balistes capriscus proteases, respectively, after 3. h of hydrolysis at 45. °C using an enzyme/substrate ratio of 20. U/mg. Therefore, these two crude proteases were used separately for chitin extraction and then chitosan preparation by N-deacetylation.Chitin and chitosan samples were then characterized by 13 Cross polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS)-NMR spectroscopy and compared to samples prepared through chemical deproteinization. All chitins and chitosans showed identical spectra. Chitosans prepared through enzymatic deproteinization have practically the same acetylation degree but higher molecular weights compared to that obtained through chemical process. Antimicobial, antioxidant and antitumoral activitities of chitosan-M obtained by treatment with A21 proteases and chitosan-C obtained by alkaline treatment were investigated. Results showed that both chitosans inhibited the growth of most Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi tested. Furthermore, both chitosans exhibited antioxidant and antitumor activities which was dependent on the molecular weight. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Younes I.,University of Sfax | Sellimi S.,University of Sfax | Rinaudo M.,Biomaterials Applications | Jellouli K.,University of Sfax | Nasri M.,University of Sfax
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

The results given in the literature are conflicting when considering the relationship between antimicrobial activity and chitosan characteristics. To be able to clarify, we prepared fifteen homogeneous chitosans with different acetylation degrees (DA) and molecular weights (MW) by reacetylation of a fully deacetylated chitin under homogeneous conditions. They were tested at different pH values for their antimicrobial activities against four Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi), four Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis and Micrococcus luteus) and three fungi (Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria solani). Chitosans markedly inhibited growth of most bacteria and fungi tested, although the inhibitory effect depends on the type of microorganism and on the chitosan characteristics (DA and MW) with minimum inhibitory concentrations in the range of 0.001 to 0.1. w%.Considering chitosan efficiency on bacteria, our series of data clearly show that the lower DA and the lower pH give the larger efficiency. Antibacterial activity was further enhanced for Gram-negative bacteria with decreasing MW, whereas, opposite effect was observed with the Gram-positive. Concerning the antifungal activity, the influence of chitosan characteristics was dependent on the particular type of fungus. Fungal growth decreased with increasing MW for F. oxysporum and decreasing DA for A. solani, but no MW or DA dependences were observed with A. niger. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Hajji S.,University of Sfax | Younes I.,University of Sfax | Ghorbel-Bellaaj O.,University of Sfax | Hajji R.,University of Sfax | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2014

Three marine sources of chitin from Tunisia were investigated. Structural differences between α-chitin from shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus) waste, crab (Carcinus mediterraneus) shells, and β-chitin from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) bones were studied by the 13C NMR, FTIR, and XRD diffractograms. The 13C NMR analysis showed a splitting of the C3 and C5 carbon signals for α-chitin, while that of β-chitin was merged into a single resonance. The bands contour of deconvoluted and curve-fit FTIR spectra showed a more detailed structure of α-chitin in the region of OH, NH and CO stretching regions. IR and 13C NMR were used to determine the chitin degree of acetylation (DA). XRD analysis indicated that α-chitins were more crystalline polymorph than β-chitin. Shrimp chitin was obtained with a good yield (20% on raw material dry weight) and no residual protein and salts. Chitosans, with a DA lower than 20% and relatively low molecular masses were prepared from the wet chitins in the same experimental conditions. They were perfectly soluble in acidic medium. Nevertheless, chitin and chitosan characteristics were depending upon the chitin source. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University of Sfax and Biomaterials Applications
Type: | Journal: International journal of biological macromolecules | Year: 2016

Chitin and derivatives used for biomedical or pharmaceutical applications require a high level of purity and quality that are difficult to achieve. In this study, we propose to optimize the extraction of chitin in order to obtain pure product keeping a structure as close as possible to the native form. Thus, demineralization step was firstly optimized using response surface methodology. In the optimized conditions predicted by the model, the obtained chitin has an acetylation degree (DA) and a demineralization degree (DM) equal to 99% and 100%, respectively. Then, different microbial and fish crude alkaline proteases were tested for their efficiency in deproteinization. Crude alkaline proteases giving the highest deproteinization degrees (DP), Bacillus mojavensis A21 and Scorpaena scrofa, were selected for chitin extraction. The obtained DP was 882% and 831%, respectively. At the end, effect of the use of mixed enzymatic treatment with the two selected crude enzymes and the order of demineralization/deproteinization steps were tested. The results demonstrated that two separated steps in enzymatic treatments realized on demineralized sample give the best DP (96%) preserving the DA (99%).


PubMed | Biomaterials Applications, University of Sfax and French National Center for Scientific Research
Type: | Journal: International journal of biological macromolecules | Year: 2016

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of chitosans with different degrees of acetylation (DA) and molecular weights (MW), as well as the effect of their positive ionic charges controlled by pH on bladder carcinoma cells (RT112 and RT112cp) using the tetrazolium salt colorimetric (MTT) assay. Our data showed that all chitosan samples were cytotoxic on RT112 and RT112cp cells with a higher cytotoxicity obtained at lower pH. Further, it was found that the toxicity increased with increasing DA. However, no significant difference in cytotoxicity between chitosans with different molecular weights was observed. Annexin V-FITC staining test was then used to study and quantify the induction of apoptosis. Data shows that chitosans induce apoptosis of RT112 and RT112cp cells with the same dependence with DA.


Ruta B.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Czakkel O.,Laue Langevin Institute | Chushkin Y.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Pignon F.,CNRS Rheology Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Soft Matter | Year: 2014

The gelation of methylcellulose in water has been studied by X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, electrophoresis and rheological measurements by looking into the dynamics of silica nanoparticles as tracers in the polymer matrix. The temperature and scattering vector dependence of the structural relaxation time is investigated at the nanometric length scale during the formation of the strong gel state. We find a stress-dominated dynamics on approaching the gel state, characterized by a hyper-diffusive motion of the silica particles. These results support the idea of a unifying scenario for the dynamics of complex out of equilibrium soft materials. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.


Bravo-Anaya L.M.,University of Guadalajara | Bravo-Anaya L.M.,Grenoble Alpes University | Soltero J.F.A.,University of Guadalajara | Rinaudo M.,Biomaterials Applications
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2016

Up to now, chitosan and DNA have been investigated for gene delivery due to chitosan advantages. It is recognized that chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable non-viral vector that does not produce immunological reactions, contrary to viral vectors. Chitosan has also been used and studied for its ability to protect DNA against nuclease degradation and to transfect DNA into several kinds of cells. In this work, high molecular weight DNA is compacted with chitosan. DNA-chitosan complex stoichiometry, net charge, dimensions, conformation and thermal stability are determined and discussed. The influence of external salt and chitosan molecular weight on the stoichiometry is also discussed. The isoelectric point of the complexes was found to be directly related to the protonation degree of chitosan. It is clearly demonstrated that the net charge of DNA-chitosan complex can be expressed in terms of the ratio [NH3 +]/[P-], showing that the electrostatic interactions between DNA and chitosan are the main phenomena taking place in the solution. Compaction of DNA long chain complexed with low molar mass chitosan gives nanoparticles with an average radius around 150 nm. Stable nanoparticles are obtained for a partial neutralization of phosphate ionic sites (i.e.: [NH3 +]/[P-] fraction between 0.35 and 0.80). © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Bravo-Anaya L.M.,Grenoble Alpes University | Bravo-Anaya L.M.,University of Guadalajara | Rinaudo M.,Biomaterials applications | Martinez F.A.S.,University of Guadalajara
Polymers | Year: 2016

Studies of DNA molecule behavior in aqueous solutions performed through different approaches allow assessment of the solute-solvent interactions and examination of the strong influence of conformation on its physicochemical properties, in the presence of different ionic species and ionic concentrations. Firstly, the conformational behavior of calf-thymus DNA molecules in TE buffer solution is presented as a function of temperature. Secondly, their rheological behavior is discussed, as well as the evidence of the critical concentrations, i.e., the overlap and the entanglement concentrations (C* and Ce, respectively) from steady state flow and oscillatory dynamic shear experiments. The determination of the viscosity in the Newtonian plateau obtained from flow curves η (γ) allows estimation of the intrinsic viscosity and the specific viscosities at zero shear when C[η] < 40. At end, a generalized master curve is obtained from the variation of the specific viscosity as a function of the overlap parameter C[η]. The variation of the exponent s obtained from the power law η~γ-s for both flow and dynamic results is discussed in terms of Graessley's analysis. In the semi-dilute regime with entanglements, a dynamic master curve is obtained as a function of DNA concentration (CDNA > 2.0 mg/mL) and temperature (10 °C < T < 40 °C). © 2016 by the authors.


PubMed | Biomaterials Applications and French National Center for Scientific Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of molecular sciences | Year: 2016

Electrospinning was employed to obtain chitosan nanofibers from blends of chitosans (CS) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Blends of chitosan (


PubMed | Biomaterials Applications and University of Guadalajara
Type: | Journal: International journal of biological macromolecules | Year: 2016

Up to now, chitosan and DNA have been investigated for gene delivery due to chitosan advantages. It is recognized that chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable non-viral vector that does not produce immunological reactions, contrary to viral vectors. Chitosan has also been used and studied for its ability to protect DNA against nuclease degradation and to transfect DNA into several kinds of cells. In this work, high molecular weight DNA is compacted with chitosan. DNA-chitosan complex stoichiometry, net charge, dimensions, conformation and thermal stability are determined and discussed. The influence of external salt and chitosan molecular weight on the stoichiometry is also discussed. The isoelectric point of the complexes was found to be directly related to the protonation degree of chitosan. It is clearly demonstrated that the net charge of DNA-chitosan complex can be expressed in terms of the ratio [NH3(+)]/[P(-)], showing that the electrostatic interactions between DNA and chitosan are the main phenomena taking place in the solution. Compaction of DNA long chain complexed with low molar mass chitosan gives nanoparticles with an average radius around 150nm. Stable nanoparticles are obtained for a partial neutralization of phosphate ionic sites (i.e.: [NH3(+)]/[P(-)] fraction between 0.35 and 0.80).

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