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Kashiwanoha, Japan

Saga K.,Biomaterial in Tokyo Co. | Hasegawa F.,University of Tokyo | Miyagi S.,University of Tokyo | Atobe S.,University of Tokyo | And 4 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2015

This study aimed to document the material balance and evaluate the energy profit ratios (EPRs) of two processes for recovering hydrocarbon from the green microalgae Botryococcus braunii, which produces hydrocarbon intercellularly, releases it extracellularly, and accumulates it in the extracellular matrix in colony-form. The first is a wet process that elutes an extraction inhibitor through heat, eliminates it through solid-liquid separation, and extracts a hydrocarbon using hexane. The second is a dry process that extracts hydrocarbon by hexane after drying. The EPR of the wet process (3.5) was approximately twice that of the dry process (1.8). Therefore, hydrocarbon can be efficiently recovered from B. braunii without drying. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Atobe S.,University of Tokyo | Saga K.,Biomaterial in Tokyo Co. | Hasegawa F.,University of Tokyo | Furuhashi K.,University of Tokyo | And 4 more authors.
Algal Research | Year: 2015

Water-soluble polymers are released from the extracellular matrix of Botryococcus braunii by thermal pretreatment prior to hydrocarbon extraction. In this study, hydrocarbon recovery was reduced by adding polymers to algal slurries from which they were previously washed. The water-soluble polymers are amphiphilic and emulsify the water-organic solvent systems used in hydrocarbon extraction. To obtain >90% hydrocarbon yields from high-concentration slurry, the original 10% water-soluble polymer content of dry algal cells had to be reduced to less than 0.5%. The water-soluble polymers were polysaccharides with a molecular weight greater than 2×106 and mainly comprised of galactose, arabinose, and uronic acid. We suggest that high-molecular-weight water-soluble polymers are desirable as industrial emulsifiers and thickeners. © 2015.

Chisada S.-I.,Kyushu University | Chisada S.-I.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries And Environment of Inland Sea | Shimizu K.,Kyushu University | Shimizu K.,The Chemo Sero Therapeutic Research Institute Kaketsuken | And 5 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Letters | Year: 2013

Vibrios, distributed in marine and brackish environments, can cause vibriosis in fish and shellfish under appropriate conditions. Previously, we clarified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) overlay assay that 35S-labeled Vibrio trachuri adhered to GM4 isolated from red sea bream intestine. However, whether GM4 actually functions on epithelial cells as an attachment site for vibrios still remains to be uncovered. We found that six isolates, classified as V. harveyi, V. campbellii, and V. splendidus, from intestinal microflora of red sea bream adhered to GM4 but not galactosylceramide (GalCer) by TLC-overlay assay. Tissue-overlay assays revealed that V. harveyi labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) adhered to epithelial cells of red sea bream intestine where GM4 and GalCer were found to be distributed on the top layer of actin filaments by immunohistochemical analysis using corresponding antibodies. The number of adhering vibrios was diminished by pretreatment with anti-GM4 antibody, but not anti-GalCer antibody. These results clearly indicate that vibrios adhere to epithelial cells of red sea bream intestine utilizing GM4 as an attachment site. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Ohta K.,University of Miyazaki | Hamasuna H.,University of Miyazaki | Tsukamoto J.,University of Miyazaki | Wakiyama M.,University of Miyazaki | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering | Year: 2012

Ethanol-producing . Escherichia coli strain KO11 consumed 99% of the glucose and only 13% of the xylose in a mixture of glucose (60. g/L) and xylose (40. g/L) during the 72-h fermentation at 30°C. The deletion mutants δ. ptsG, δ. manXYZ, and δ. ptsG/manXYZ utilized 42%, 78%, and 35% of the glucose and 50%, 32%, and 32% of the xylose, respectively. © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan.

Sato T.,Biomaterial in Tokyo Co. | Sato T.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Yasuzawa T.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Uesaka A.,Kyoto Prefectural University | And 6 more authors.
Nutrition Research | Year: 2014

A precursor of protoporphyrin IX, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is used as a prodrug for photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy. Recently, it has been shown that 5-ALA reduces glucose levels during fasting and after glucose loading in prediabetic subjects. We hypothesized that 5-ALA ameliorates diabetic conditions through mitochondrial changes in visceral adipose tissue. In order to explore the metabolic effects on the type 2 diabetic state, we administered ALA hydrochloride in combination with sodium ferrous citrate to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats at intragastric doses of 20 and 300 mg kg-1 d-1 for 6 weeks. The administration of 300 mg kg-1 d-1 of 5-ALA improved glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperleptinemia in OLETF rats more effectively than the administration of an equivalent dose of metformin, in accordance with reductions in food intake and body weight. Furthermore, the weight of the retroperitoneal fat tended to decrease and cellular mitochondrial content of the fat was markedly reduced by the 5-ALA administration, showing a positive correlation. These results suggest that 5-ALA ameliorates diabetic abnormalities in OLETF rats by reducing the visceral fat mass and mitochondrial content of adipocytes in a site-specific manner. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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