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Dale V.H.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Kline K.L.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Kaffka S.R.,University of California at Davis | Langeveld J.W.A.,Biomass Research
Landscape Ecology | Year: 2013

Agricultural sustainability considers the effects of farm activities on social, economic, and environmental conditions at local and regional scales. Adoption of more sustainable agricultural practices entails defining sustainability, developing easily measured indicators of sustainability, moving toward integrated agricultural systems, and offering incentives or imposing regulations to affect farmer behavior. Landscape ecology is an informative discipline in considering sustainability because it provides theory and methods for dealing with spatial heterogeneity, scaling, integration, and complexity. To move toward more sustainable agriculture, we propose adopting a systems perspective, recognizing spatial heterogeneity, integrating landscape-design principles and addressing the influences of context, such as the particular products and their distribution, policy background, stakeholder values, location, temporal influences, spatial scale, and baseline conditions. Topics that need further attention at local and regional scales include (1) protocols for quantifying material and energy flows; (2) standard specifications for management practices and corresponding effects; (3) incentives and disincentives for enhancing economic, environmental, and social conditions (including financial, regulatory and other behavioral motivations); (4) integrated landscape planning and management; (5) monitoring and assessment; (6) effects of societal demand; and (7) integrative policies for promoting agricultural sustainability. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA).


« California Governor signs new super-pollutants legislation into law; black carbon, fluorinated gases and methane | Main | GENIVI Alliance launches new open source vehicle simulator project » At its recent annual meeting in Albany, Calif., the public-private consortium behind the Biomass Research and Development Initiative (BRDI) grant, “Securing the Future of Natural Rubber—an American Tire and Bioenergy Platform from Guayule,” reported several key advancements emerging from the group’s work over the past year. Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, working as the lead agency in the grant, announced that its scientists have reached a key milestone toward the goal of producing, by mid-2017, a concept tire in which all of the natural and synthetic rubber is replaced by guayule-based polymers. Guayule is a shrub that is grown primarily in the southwestern United States and contains rubber that can be processed for use in tires. (Earlier post.) The 100% guayule-based concept tire will undergo extensive technical evaluation following its production. Concurrently, Cooper will continue studies on potential commercialization of guayule-based tires for the future. To date, Cooper has completed a number of tire builds, iterative work that includes the replacement of both Hevea and synthetic rubber with guayule in various components, and then testing each build for overall performance. At the BRDI annual meeting, Cooper announced that it has completed this process on nearly all tire components, and has tested these tires with promising results. We have nearly finished our work on developing guayule-based tire components and have tested these tires to assure a full performance evaluation. The results are highly promising. We have proven that we can replace traditional polymers with guayule in certain components, and that tires made from these components perform equal to conventional tires. We are optimizing the use of guayule formulations to develop not only a full guayule tire, but we will also evaluate guayule blends in certain components where an advantage has been shown to exist Another grant consortium partner, the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), announced at the BRDI annual meeting that it has completed the most extensive irrigation study ever done on guayule. Growing guayule in desert regions requires judicious management of irrigation water for maximizing yields while minimizing water usage. The study, which began in 2012 and involved two guayule fields in Maricopa, Ariz., compared surface irrigation and subsurface drip irrigation to determine the most effective method to drive higher rubber yield per acre. The final harvest was completed in March 2015, and ARS concluded that drip irrigation provided an enormous benefit over other irrigation techniques and led to improved yields. The information obtained is critical to developing optimum guayule farming techniques to support a potential future guayule industry. ARS is developing a web-based application that will allow farmers to easily use the data to maximize their yields. ARS also reported on its work under the grant to sequence the guayule genome. This effort is geared to position the crop to benefit from modern breeding and genetics tools reported by the Cornell University consortium partners. The molecular efforts are designed to advance improvements in terms of yield, resistance to disease and pests, cold tolerance and other factors, laying the foundation for molecular breeding of the plant. ARS announced that this work has resulted in three patent disclosures on the genome, which will be submitted to the US Patent Office, significantly advancing the understanding of the plant and how to engineer it moving forward to maximize its potential in the production of rubber for the tire industry. The BRDI annual meeting also included a report from Clemson University, which is responsible for studying the environmental impacts of the entire tire life cycle using guayule versus traditional Hevea rubber in tire production. Clemson announced that it has completed early work on the development of a computer-based Life Cycle Analysis program for guayule-based tires that will help quantify the sustainability of the effort from genome to tire production and through the service life and disposal of tires. Grant partner PanAridus has the role of raw materials supplier for the project. The company has developed varieties of guayule with increased rubber content and has pioneered direct seeding methods, agronomics and co-product markets. At the BRDI annual meeting, PanAridus provided an update on its role in production of rubber for use in the tire industry. PanAridus and Cooper have developed a proprietary solvent-based process to extract rubber from guayule plants. Under its work on the grant, PanAridus has produced rubber in quantities never before achieved for use in modern tires. This rubber has been supplied to Cooper for its work in the tire builds and testing. The consortium received the five-year BRDI grant in 2012 from the USDA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct research aimed at developing enhanced manufacturing processes for the production of solid rubber from the guayule plant as a biomaterial for tire applications, as well as evaluating the plant’s residual biomass for potential fuel applications. The consortium aims to harness the biopolymers extracted from guayule as a replacement for synthetic rubbers and Hevea natural rubber used in the production of tires. It is also focused on the genomic and agronomic development of guayule and the sustainability impact these biomaterial and bioenergy industries have on the American southwest, where guayule is grown. The grant period ends in the second quarter of 2017.


Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Alternative Chemical Products and Processing" report to their offering. The alternative U.S chemical end-use product market is expected to increase from $149.9 billion in 2016 to an estimated $345.6 billion by 2021. It should reach $884.1 billion by 2026, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19.4% for the period of 2016-2026. This timely study looks at the markets for alternative chemical products, which include biomass feedstocks, biobased chemical intermediate products, and end-use alternative chemical products, along with processing technology. It compares the alternative and traditional chemical markets, highlighting the move away from petrochemicals as a primary feedstock. The international arena, regulatory environment and technology, all of which directly affect opportunities for alternative chemical products, are extensively reviewed. The report includes profiles of major product manufacturers and reviews end-use markets. New technologies and processing developments are extensively discussed. Detailed forecasts and analysis provide vital and comprehensive market information on product sales, cost-savings alternatives and international opportunities. Market forecasts are included for all product categories for U.S. as well as global production. Estimated values used are based on manufacturers' total revenues. The historical and current significance of government regulations, patents and R&D will be reviewed in terms of their vital roles in affecting the market dynamics of the alternative chemical market, with emphasis on future product sales. Information concerning U.S. exports and leading globalized companies will be analyzed. The report covers a broad spectrum of the chemical industry and provides a cohesive picture of the overall alternative chemical product market, with forecasts through 2026. - An overview of the global markets for alternative chemical products and processing - Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015, estimates for 2016, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2026 - Coverage of processes that are less harmful to humans and the environment, rely on renewable resources, and offer cost efficiency to the manufacturer and customers - Product markets from feedstocks to end-use - Regulatory environments as well governmental impact on the market - Detailed information on manufacturers - Profiles of major players in the industry 1: Introduction - Study Goals And Objectives - Reasons For Doing The Study - Intended Audience - Scope Of Report 3: Overview - History Of The Chemical Industry - The Chemical Industry - Environmental Impact - Major Biomass Feedstocks - Biobased Alternative Chemicals - End-Use Products Of Alternative Chemical Manufacturing - Alternative Chemical Processes - Manufacturers - Sales Opportunities - Forecasting Product Sales 7: International Market - International Market Dynamics - U.S. Exports - Worldwide Regional Markets - International Regulation And Agreements - The Kyoto Protocol - International Companies - Financing And Export Assistance 8: Regulation - Historical Significance - Epa's Green Chemistry Focus - The Clean Air Act - Water Pollution Control Act - Clean Water Act - Resource Conservation And Recovery Act - Pollution Prevention Act - Toxic Substances Control Act - Biomass Research And Development Act Of 2000 - New Developments In Regulation 9: Company Profiles - AG Processing Inc. - Altranex Corp. - Amyris Inc. - Anellotech, Inc. - Archer Daniels Midland Co. (Adm) - Ashland Inc. - Avantium Technologies B.V. - BASF SE - Bioamber Inc - Biochemtex S.P.A. - Biome Technologies Plc - Biorizon - Butalco Gmbh - Calysta Inc. - Cargill Corp. - Codexis Inc. - Corbion NV - DOW Chemical Co. - Dupont - Dupont Tate & Lyle Bioproducts (Dptl), Llc - Eastman Chemical Co. - Enerkem Inc. - Evolva Holding S.A. - Evonik Industries AG - Genomatica Inc. - Gfbiochemicals Ltd. - Glycos Biotechnologies Inc. - Ingredion Inc. - Iogen Corp. - Jiangsu Kaopule New Material Co., Ltd. - Koch Biological Solutions, Llc - Metabolix Inc. - Midwest Grain Products Inc. - Natureworks Llc - Novamont S.P.A - Novomer Inc. - Pathway Biologic Llc - Penn A Kem Llc - Reluceo Inc. - Shenzhen Ecomann Biotechnology Co., Ltd. - Spartan Chemical Co., Inc. - Synthezyme Llc - Tate & Lyle Plc - Teijin Fibers Ltd. - Tianjin Green Biomaterials - Terraverdae Bioworks Inc. - Vertec Biosolvents Inc. For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/ld8wqh/alternative


Dublin, Feb. 14, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Alternative Chemical Products and Processing" report to their offering. The alternative U.S chemical end-use product market is expected to increase from $149.9 billion in 2016 to an estimated $345.6 billion by 2021. It should reach $884.1 billion by 2026, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19.4% for the period of 2016-2026. This timely study looks at the markets for alternative chemical products, which include biomass feedstocks, biobased chemical intermediate products, and end-use alternative chemical products, along with processing technology. It compares the alternative and traditional chemical markets, highlighting the move away from petrochemicals as a primary feedstock. The international arena, regulatory environment and technology, all of which directly affect opportunities for alternative chemical products, are extensively reviewed. The report includes profiles of major product manufacturers and reviews end-use markets. New technologies and processing developments are extensively discussed. Detailed forecasts and analysis provide vital and comprehensive market information on product sales, cost-savings alternatives and international opportunities. Market forecasts are included for all product categories for U.S. as well as global production. Estimated values used are based on manufacturers' total revenues. The historical and current significance of government regulations, patents and R&D will be reviewed in terms of their vital roles in affecting the market dynamics of the alternative chemical market, with emphasis on future product sales. Information concerning U.S. exports and leading globalized companies will be analyzed. The report covers a broad spectrum of the chemical industry and provides a cohesive picture of the overall alternative chemical product market, with forecasts through 2026. - An overview of the global markets for alternative chemical products and processing - Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015, estimates for 2016, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2026 - Coverage of processes that are less harmful to humans and the environment, rely on renewable resources, and offer cost efficiency to the manufacturer and customers - Product markets from feedstocks to end-use - Regulatory environments as well governmental impact on the market - Detailed information on manufacturers - Profiles of major players in the industry Key Topics Covered: 1: Introduction - Study Goals And Objectives - Reasons For Doing The Study - Intended Audience - Scope Of Report 2: Summary 3: Overview - History Of The Chemical Industry - The Chemical Industry - Environmental Impact - Major Biomass Feedstocks - Biobased Alternative Chemicals - End-Use Products Of Alternative Chemical Manufacturing - Alternative Chemical Processes - Manufacturers - Sales Opportunities - Forecasting Product Sales 4: Products - Feedstocks - Biobased Chemical Products - Market By Alternative Chemical End-Use Products 5: Technology - Pollution Prevention And Cost Savings - R&D - Life Cycle Assessment - Chemical Processes - Product And Processes R&D - Patents 6: Industry Structure And Market Competition - Market Dynamics For Alternative Chemical Products 7: International Market - International Market Dynamics - U.S. Exports - Worldwide Regional Markets - International Regulation And Agreements - The Kyoto Protocol - International Companies - Financing And Export Assistance 8: Regulation - Historical Significance - Epa's Green Chemistry Focus - The Clean Air Act - Water Pollution Control Act - Clean Water Act - Resource Conservation And Recovery Act - Pollution Prevention Act - Toxic Substances Control Act - Biomass Research And Development Act Of 2000 - New Developments In Regulation 9: Company Profiles - AG Processing Inc. - Altranex Corp. - Amyris Inc. - Anellotech, Inc. - Archer Daniels Midland Co. (Adm) - Ashland Inc. - Avantium Technologies B.V. - BASF SE - Bioamber Inc - Biochemtex S.P.A. - Biome Technologies Plc - Biorizon - Butalco Gmbh - Calysta Inc. - Cargill Corp. - Codexis Inc. - Corbion NV - DOW Chemical Co. - Dupont - Dupont Tate & Lyle Bioproducts (Dptl), Llc - Eastman Chemical Co. - Enerkem Inc. - Evolva Holding S.A. - Evonik Industries AG - Genomatica Inc. - Gfbiochemicals Ltd. - Glycos Biotechnologies Inc. - Ingredion Inc. - Iogen Corp. - Jiangsu Kaopule New Material Co., Ltd. - Koch Biological Solutions, Llc - Metabolix Inc. - Midwest Grain Products Inc. - Natureworks Llc - Novamont S.P.A - Novomer Inc. - Pathway Biologic Llc - Penn A Kem Llc - Reluceo Inc. - Shenzhen Ecomann Biotechnology Co., Ltd. - Spartan Chemical Co., Inc. - Synthezyme Llc - Tate & Lyle Plc - Teijin Fibers Ltd. - Tianjin Green Biomaterials - Terraverdae Bioworks Inc. - Vertec Biosolvents Inc. 10: Appendix For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/6vw4xr/alternative


Langeveld J.W.A.,Biomass Research | Dixon J.,Australian Center for International Agricultural Research | van Keulen H.,Wageningen University | Quist-Wessel P.M.F.,Biomass Research
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining | Year: 2014

Estimates on impacts of biofuel production often use models with limited ability to incorporate changes in land use, notably cropping intensity. This review studies biofuel expansion between 2000 and 2010 in Brazil, the USA, Indonesia, Malaysia, China, Mozambique, South Africa plus 27 EU member states. In 2010, these countries produced 86 billion litres of ethanol and 15 billion litres of biodiesel. Land use increased by 25 Mha, of which 11 Mha is associated with co-products, i.e. by-products of biofuel production processes used as animal feed. In the decade up to 2010, agricultural land decreased by 9 Mha overall. It expanded by 22 Mha in Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Mozambique, some 31 Mha was lost in the USA, the EU, and South Africa due to urbanization, expansion of infrastructure, conversion into nature, and land abandonment. Increases in cropping intensity accounted for 42 Mha of additional harvested area. Together with increased co-product availability for animal feed, this was sufficient to increase the net harvested area (NHA, crop area harvested for food, feed, and fiber markets) in the study countries by 19 Mha. Thus, despite substantial expansion of biofuel production, more land has become available for non-fuel applications. Biofuel crop areas and NHA increased in most countries including the USA and Brazil. It is concluded that biofuel expansion in 2000-2010 is not associated with a decline in the NHA available for food crop production. The increases in multiple cropping have often been overlooked and should be considered more fully in calculations of (indirect) land-use change (iLUC). © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Langeveld J.W.A.,Biomass Research | Kalf R.,KEMA | Elbersen H.W.,Agrotechnology and Food Science Group
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining | Year: 2010

Development of bioenergy production in the Netherlands is lagging. This paper presents an inventory of problems met by new bioenergy chains and compares these to literature and to other countries. Theoretical frameworks suggest that five elements are crucial for successful bioenergy chain development: (i) availability of (proven) technology; (ii) access to information; (iii) access to feedstocks, financial means, and markets; (iv) locations for new installations; and (v) efficient lobby activities and public support. Nine bioenergy chains were interviewed. Problems that are reported relate to insufficient knowledge of new technological concepts, and of nuisances (noise, emission, odor, and other) caused during bioenergy production. Feedstock markets (wood, byproducts, waste) and product markets (heat, CO 2) are underdeveloped, while some chains are experiencing extra problems finding a suitable location or obtaining necessary permits. Problems related to insufficient public support are most relevant for bioenergy chains depending on tax exemptions (pure vegetation oil transportation fuels) or requiring adaptation of legislation (location permits for farm fermenters). An international comparison to barriers for biofuel suggests that economic factors (including lack of capital), limitations in know-how and institutional capacities, underdeveloped biomass and carbon markets, problems in chain coordination, and limited public support are largest problems for new bioenergy chains. Recommendations to stimulate bioenergy production in the Netherlands refer to performance standards for new installation types, information on feedstock availability, protocols for heat exchange and on improved credit facilities. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


News Article | January 15, 2016
Site: phys.org

Now, a team of Agricultural Research Service scientists in Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, has made key advances in a process that produces a crude liquid called "bio-oil" from agricultural waste. The crude bio-oil is produced by pyrolysis, a process that involves chemical decomposition of plant and other organic matter using very high heat. The modified technique is called "tail-gas reactive pyrolysis" (TGRP). It holds promise for processing and improving the bio-oil, which is ultimately processed into finished biofuel. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 calls for a minimum of 36 billion gallons of advanced biofuels to be produced in the U.S. by the year 2022. This effort will require, in part, the development of a new industry that produces 21 billion gallons of new biofuels based on non-food sources. "Ideally, the biofuels added to gasoline would be identical to fuels produced at petroleum refineries," says chemical engineer Yaseen Elkasabi. The research team, which includes Elkasabi, is headed by chemical engineer Akwasi Boateng with chemist Charles Mullen, and engineers Neil Goldberg and Mark Schaffer, in the Sustainable Biofuels and Coproducts Unit at the ARS Eastern Regional Research Center. Raw material called "biomass" is the basis for producing biofuel, and it includes non-food-grade plant matter procured from agricultural or household waste. "We are using crop and forestry residue, such as wood and switchgrass, and also animal manures to produce bio-oils at an accelerated rate using a new high-output, mobile processing unit," says Mullen. "Rather than shipping large amounts of agricultural waste to a refinery plant at a cost, the mobile reactor allows us to convert the biomass into a more energy-dense bio-oil right on the farm." The goal of using TGRP on the farm is to yield a higher quality bio-oil that is more marketable to biofuel producers than bio-oil made from traditional pyrolysis methods. Construction of the mobile unit was funded by a Biomass Research and Development Initiative grant from USDA's National Institute of Food and Agriculture. At petroleum refineries, distillation is a process used for preparing crude oils into finished fuels. But traditional petroleum refineries are not equipped to distill crude pyrolysis oil because it is highly acidic and has high oxygen content, making it corrosive and thermally unstable. Petroleum is naturally deoxygenated. While crude bio-oil can be deoxygenated by adding a catalyst, that approach is expensive and complex. The ARS team's studies have shown that the new TGRP process provides bio-oils that are similar in composition and properties to those produced by adding the catalyst. "The quality of TGRP deoxygenated liquids is equal to or better than the bio-oil produced by catalytic pyrolysis," says Elkasabi. "TGRP is an important step toward the ultimate goal of producing cleaner bio-oils that can be distilled at existing petroleum refineries."


Langeveld J.W.A.,Biomass Research | Dixon J.,Hill International | Jaworski J.F.,Formerly of Life Science Industries Branch
Crop Science | Year: 2010

This paper provides an outline of the biobased economy, its perspectives for agriculture and, more particularly, for development purposes. Possibilities of development of biobased products, advanced biofuels, and viable and effi cientbiorefi nery concepts are explored. The paper lists non-fuel bioproducts (e.g., chemicals,pharmaceuticals, biopolymers) and presents basic principles and development options for biorefi neries that can be used to generate them alongside biofuels, power, and by-products.  One of the main challenges is to capture more value from existing crops without compromising the needs and possibilities of small-scale, less endowed farmers. Biobased products offerthe most development perspectives, combining large market volumes with medium to high price levels. Consequently, the most can be expected from products like fi ne chemicals, lubricants, and solvents. In addition, biosolar cells can help to relax pressures on biomass production systems while decentralized production chains can serve local needs for energy, materials, and nutrients as their requirement for viable economic  development are linked to larger markets. Research challenges include development of such production and market chains, and of biosolar cells and selection of model crops that offer perspectives for less favored producers and underdeveloped rural areas. © Crop Science Society of America.


Gan J.,Texas A&M University | Smith C.T.,University of Toronto | Langeveld J.W.A.,Biomass Research
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2012

Fertilizer use, widely practiced in forest plantation management to stimulate tree growth, contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We explore how accounting for GHG consequences affects optimal fertilizer application rates of commercial forest plantations. A generic model that maximizes the equivalent annual net benefit of timber production and GHG balance is developed and applied to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the southern United States. We find that fertilizer use still is a viable practice for managing loblolly pine plantations in the region although fertilizer application rate should be reduced when GHG consequences are valued. A greater reduction in fertilizer application rate is recommended where wood is used for paper production because life cycle GHG emissions of paper products are much higher than those of solid wood or bioenergy products. A higher fertilizer rate should be applied when forest residues are used for the production of bioenergy that offsets GHG emissions from consuming fossil fuels. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Heaton E.A.,Iowa State University | Schulte L.A.,Iowa State University | Berti M.,North Dakota State University | Langeveld H.,Biomass Research | And 3 more authors.
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining | Year: 2013

Sustainable intensification of agricultural systems has been suggested - in addition to reducing waste and changing consumption habits - as a way to increase food, feed, fuel, and fiber security in the twenty-first century. Here we describe three primary strategies of agricultural intensification - conventional intensification, temporal intensification, and spatial intensification - and how they can be used to manage and integrate food and second-generation crop portfolios. While each strategy has individual merits, combining them to meet case-specific targets may achieve optimum results. Multiple experiments and examples from the USA and the EU illustrate the potential of combining these approaches for agroecological intensification that can provide ecosystem services while maintaining or increasing economic output, thus striking a balance between 'land sparing' and 'land sharing'. Management strategies will vary by the types of markets available, e.g., food, fuel and/or ecosystem services, and the scale of markets supplied, e.g., small heat and power vs. large cellulosic ethanol. Future research should holistically and methodologically evaluate the trade-offs between different management strategies. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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