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Ruiz F.X.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Ruiz F.X.,Rutgers University | Cousido-Siah A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Porte S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 11 more authors.
ChemMedChem | Year: 2015

The human enzymes aldose reductase (AR) and AKR1B10 have been thoroughly explored in terms of their roles in diabetes, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. In this study we identified two new lead compounds, 2-(3-(4-chloro-3-nitrobenzyl)-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid (JF0048, 3) and 2-(2,4-dioxo-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-methoxybenzyl)-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid (JF0049, 4), which selectively target these enzymes. Although 3 and 4 share the 3-benzyluracil-1-acetic acid scaffold, they have different substituents in their aryl moieties. Inhibition studies along with thermodynamic and structural characterizations of both enzymes revealed that the chloronitrobenzyl moiety of compound 3 can open the AR specificity pocket but not that of the AKR1B10 cognate. In contrast, the larger atoms at the ortho and/or meta positions of compound 4 prevent the AR specificity pocket from opening due to steric hindrance and provide a tighter fit to the AKR1B10 inhibitor binding pocket, probably enhanced by the displacement of a disordered water molecule trapped in a hydrophobic subpocket, creating an enthalpic signature. Furthermore, this selectivity also occurs in the cell, which enables the development of a more efficient drug design strategy: compound 3 prevents sorbitol accumulation in human retinal ARPE-19 cells, whereas 4 stops proliferation in human lung cancer NCI-H460 cells. Selective targeting: We identified two new lead compounds that selectively target the human enzymes aldose reductase and AKR1B10, which are involved in diabetes, cancer, and inflammation. Inhibition studies along with thermodynamic and structural characterization led to the identification of determinants for this selectivity, unveiling new possibilities for structure-based drug design. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Cousido-Siah A.,CNRS Institute of Integrative Biology | Ruiz F.X.,CNRS Institute of Integrative Biology | Ruiz F.X.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Mitschler A.,CNRS Institute of Integrative Biology | And 11 more authors.
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2014

Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are mostly monomeric enzymes which fold into a highly conserved (α/β)8 barrel, while their substrate specificity and inhibitor selectivity are determined by interaction with residues located in three highly variable external loops. The closely related human enzymes aldose reductase (AR or AKR1B1) and AKR1B10 are of biomedical interest because of their involvement in secondary diabetic complications (AR) and in cancer, e.g. hepatocellular carcinoma and smoking-related lung cancer (AKR1B10). After characterization of the IC50 values of both AKRs with a series of polyhalogenated compounds, 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′,6,6′- octafluoro-4,4′-biphenyldiol (JF0064) was identified as a lead inhibitor of both enzymes with a new scaffold (a 1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diol). An ultrahigh-resolution X-ray structure of the AR-NADP+-JF0064 complex has been determined at 0.85 Å resolution, allowing it to be observed that JF0064 interacts with the catalytic residue Tyr48 through a negatively charged hydroxyl group (i.e. the acidic phenol). The non-competitive inhibition pattern observed for JF0064 with both enzymes suggests that this acidic hydroxyl group is also present in the case of AKR1B10. Moreover, the combination of surface lysine methylation and the introduction of K125R and V301L mutations enabled the determination of the X-ray crystallo-graphic structure of the corresponding AKR1B10-NADP+-JF0064 complex. Comparison of the two structures has unveiled some important hints for subsequent structure-based drug-design efforts. © 2014 International Union of Crystallography.

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