BioMar AS

Trondheim, Norway

BioMar AS

Trondheim, Norway
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Pratoomyot J.,University of Stirling | Bendiksen E.A.,BioMar AS | Bell J.G.,University of Stirling | Tocher D.R.,University of Stirling
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

The effects of high levels of replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by mixtures of plant protein (PP) sources on growth performance, lipid composition, protein and lipid digestibility and fatty acid profile were investigated in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Experimental diets containing 35% protein and 28% lipid were formulated with a low level of FM that was replaced by increasing levels of PP resulting in four diets of 25/45 (% FM/% PP, F25), 18/50 (F18), 11/55 (F11) and 5/60 (F5). Dietary oil was supplied by a fish oil (FO) and rapeseed oil blend at a ratio of ∼ 40/60 so this formulation was effectively a dual replacement of FO and FM. Diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids, to compensate for the reduction in indispensible amino acids due to reduced FM content, and all diets were supplemented with lecithin. Salmon, initial weight 1.30 ± 0.1 kg, were fed one of the four experimental diets for 19 weeks. Feed consumption decreased as PP inclusion in diets increased, probably as a result of reduced palatability. Fish fed the F18, F11 and F5 diets had significantly lower final body weights than fish fed the F25 diet, with SGR decreased by 5%, 11% and 23%, respectively. The lower growth as FM inclusion in diets decreased was associated with decreased feed intake throughout the trial. In contrast, nutrient utilization was significantly affected in the first phase with increased FCR and decreased PER as FM inclusion decreased. However, there were no significant differences in these parameters in the second phase suggesting that there was metabolic adaptation to the diets. Changes in feed physical texture and/or chemical olfactory attractants possibly reduced the palatability of the diets. Essential fatty acid composition, in particular EPA, DHA and ARA in salmon flesh and liver were not negatively affected by dietary treatment and there was some evidence of increased retention and/or synthesis of LC-PUFA. © 2010.


Karalazos V.,University of Stirling | Bendiksen E.A.,BioMar AS | Bell J.G.,University of Stirling
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

Although the use of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) has been extensive in Atlantic salmon culture, there is a growing need for less reliance on these commodities. Moreover, it is crucial for the aquafeed industry to optimise the use of dietary protein and to improve the protein utilisation in salmon diets. The interactive effects of the dietary protein/lipid level and rapeseed oil (RO) inclusion on growth, feed utilisation, nutrient and fatty acid (FA) digestibility and whole body chemical composition of large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), reared at summer water temperatures (11.6°C), were investigated in a ten week feeding trial. The fish (initial weight 2053g) were fed six isoenergetic diets in a factorial design containing 350g kg-1/350g, kg-1, 330g kg-1/360g kg-1, 290g kg-1/380g kg-1 of protein/lipid for high protein (HP), medium protein (MP) and low protein (LP) diets, respectively. At all protein/lipid levels the oil source was either FO or RO (60% of the added oil). At the end of the trial the final weights ranged from 3340-3664g and the FCR from 0.99-1.10. The protein level did not affect significantly any of the growth parameters but the oil source had a significant effect on final weight, specific growth rate (SGR) and thermal growth coefficient (TGC), showing improved growth with RO inclusion. This could be explained by the significantly higher lipid digestibility of the fish fed the diets containing RO (86.1 vs. 92.2%) which was probably affected by the diet FA composition; the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of saturated FA, and to a lesser extent of unsaturated FA and especially monoenes, was improved by RO inclusion. The protein ADC was significantly affected by the protein level indicating a higher ADC for the HP diets compared to the LP (80.1 vs. 77.7%, respectively). Regarding the whole body composition, moisture was significantly affected by both factors, the fat content was significantly affected only by the oil source, while significant interactions were shown for the protein content. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that low protein/high lipid diets can be used with no negative effects on the growth, FCR and chemical composition of Atlantic salmon reared at high water temperatures. Moreover, the replacement of FO with RO can enhance the growth of the fish as well as the nutrient and FA digestibility of the diets. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Bendiksen E.A.,BioMar AS | Johnsen C.A.,University of Nordland | Olsen H.J.,BioMar AS | Jobling M.,University of Tromsø
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

The salmon farming industry has been criticised for being a net consumer of marine resources, in the form of fishmeals (FMs) and fish oils (FOs) used in feeds. Despite the efforts made to replace FM and FO with alternatives, such as vegetable proteins and oils, the balance is still generally negative, with calculated fish in-fish out (FIFO) values often being over 4. This paper reports on a FM and FO replacement study, with maximum 20 and minimum 10% FM inclusion in high-energy, extruded salmon feeds, and in which 50% of the feed oil was of vegetable origin (rapeseed). Further, half of the dietary FO was oil reclaimed from fish processing waste (herring offal silage oil), the other half being pristine FO (blend of herring and anchoveta oils). Growth and feed utilisation were assessed in a 9. month trial, during which fish weight increased from ca. 1.2. kg to ca. 4.6. kg. There were no significant differences between feed treatments with respect to growth, feed utilisation and mortality, and replacement of FM with vegetable proteins did not compromise the bioavailability of feed nutrients. Salmon given the feed with the highest level of fishmeal replacement (FM10) had a net production of fillet protein relative to feed input in the form of protein derived from FM, indicating that FM supply is not a major factor that would impose serious limits on the quantity and efficiency of production. The inclusion of FO as 50% of the feed oils ensured that the salmon fillets contained levels of n-3 highly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs) that would be considered adequate from a consumer perspective (at least 1.5. g n-3 HUFAs per 100. g fillet) and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (ca. 0.65) was also favourable from a human health point of view. There was net consumption of marine fish resources when assessed as FIFO calculated on the basis of the amounts of fish required to produce all FOs (FIFO 3.03-3.59) and on fish needed to produce pristine FOs included in the feeds (FIFO 1.53-1.83). Calculations based upon nutrient ratios gave positive outcomes, and salmon in all treatments deposited more fillet fat than the amount of pristine FO consumed. It is concluded that supplies of FOs impose greater limitations on the formulation of salmon feeds than do supplies of FMs. The results of the study also indicate that increased use of fish processing by-products has the potential to reduce some of the predicted short-fall in FOs resulting from reductions in the amounts of small, pelagic marine fish species rendered directly for the production of FMs and FOs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Johnsen C.A.,University of Nordland | Hagen O.,University of Nordland | Bendiksen E.A.,BioMar AS
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

Long-term effects of feeding high-energy, low-fishmeal feeds on growth and flesh characteristics were investigated in ~. 1-4.5. kg Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Feeds were a high-fishmeal control (HFM; 20% fishmeal of total feed ingredients), medium-fishmeal (MFM; 15%), and low-fishmeal (LFM; 10%). Growth and feed utilisation were assessed regularly over a 9. month growth trial, and flesh characteristics (fillet fat, pigment concentration, visual colour) were monitored at ~. 1. kg weight intervals. These were expanded to include instrumental colour and texture analyses and sensory evaluation in harvest-size (ca. 4.5. kg) salmon. There were no significant differences between feed treatments with respect to growth, feed utilisation, mortality and flesh characteristics; confirmed by a lack of cluster formation in a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). The most pronounced correlations were found between flesh pigment and a*-value, SalmoFan, hue and intensity, between muscle fat and pigment, and between fat and sensory attributes (odour, taste, flavour, texture and colour). This study demonstrates that dietary fishmeal levels can be substantially reduced from present commercial levels without compromising growth performance or flesh quality of harvest-size salmon. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


News Article | November 17, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Aquaculture Revenue, means the sales value of Aquaculture This report studies sales (consumption) of Aquaculture in Global market, especially in USA, China, Europe, Japan, India and Southeast Asia, focuses on top players in these regions/countries, with sales, price, revenue and market share for each player in these regions, covering Blue Ridge Aquaculture Cermaq Cooke Aquaculture Tassal group Ltd. Nireus Aquaculture Prangerent AKVA group The Sagun Group BioMar Hendrix Genetics Shandong Homey Aquatic Shandong Oriental Ocean Polytron? Dalian Zhangzidao fishery group? Shandong Xunshan Fisheries Group Zhanjiang Guolian Aquatic Products Group Zhanjiang Evergreen Aquatic Product Beihai Evergreen Aquatic Product Shanwei Good Harvest Aquatic Products Hainan Xiangtai Fishery Group Shenzhen Allied Aquatic Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with sales (consumption), revenue, market share and growth rate of Aquaculture in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like USA China Europe Japan India Southeast Asia Split by product Types, with sales, revenue, price and gross margin, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into Type I Type II Type III Split by applications, this report focuses on sales, market share and growth rate of Aquaculture in each application, can be divided into Application 1 Application 2 Application 3 Global Aquaculture Sales Market Report 2016 1 Aquaculture Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Aquaculture 1.2 Classification of Aquaculture 1.2.1 Type I 1.2.2 Type II 1.2.3 Type III 1.3 Application of Aquaculture 1.3.1 Application 1 1.3.2 Application 2 1.3.3 Application 3 1.4 Aquaculture Market by Regions 1.4.1 USA Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.2 China Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.3 Europe Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.5 India Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.6 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.5 Global Market Size (Value and Volume) of Aquaculture (2011-2021) 1.5.1 Global Aquaculture Sales and Growth Rate (2011-2021) 1.5.2 Global Aquaculture Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) 2 Global Aquaculture Competition by Manufacturers, Type and Application 2.1 Global Aquaculture Market Competition by Manufacturers 2.1.1 Global Aquaculture Sales and Market Share of Key Manufacturers (2011-2016) 2.1.2 Global Aquaculture Revenue and Share by Manufacturers (2011-2016) 2.2 Global Aquaculture (Volume and Value) by Type 2.2.1 Global Aquaculture Sales and Market Share by Type (2011-2016) 2.2.2 Global Aquaculture Revenue and Market Share by Type (2011-2016) 2.3 Global Aquaculture (Volume and Value) by Regions 2.3.1 Global Aquaculture Sales and Market Share by Regions (2011-2016) 2.3.2 Global Aquaculture Revenue and Market Share by Regions (2011-2016) 2.4 Global Aquaculture (Volume) by Application Figure Picture of Aquaculture Table Classification of Aquaculture Figure Global Sales Market Share of Aquaculture by Type in 2015 Figure Type I Picture Figure Type II Picture Table Applications of Aquaculture Figure Global Sales Market Share of Aquaculture by Application in 2015 Figure Application 1 Examples Figure Application 2 Examples Figure USA Aquaculture Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) Figure China Aquaculture Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) Figure Europe Aquaculture Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) Figure Japan Aquaculture Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) Figure India Aquaculture Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) Figure Southeast Asia Aquaculture Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) Figure Global Aquaculture Sales and Growth Rate (2011-2021) Figure Global Aquaculture Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) Table Global Aquaculture Sales of Key Manufacturers (2011-2016) Table Global Aquaculture Sales Share by Manufacturers (2011-2016) Figure 2015 Aquaculture Sales Share by Manufacturers Figure 2016 Aquaculture Sales Share by Manufacturers Table Global Aquaculture Revenue by Manufacturers (2011-2016) Table Global Aquaculture Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2011-2016) Table 2015 Global Aquaculture Revenue Share by Manufacturers Table 2016 Global Aquaculture Revenue Share by Manufacturers Table Global Aquaculture Sales and Market Share by Type (2011-2016) Table Global Aquaculture Sales Share by Type (2011-2016) Figure Sales Market Share of Aquaculture by Type (2011-2016) Figure Global Aquaculture Sales Growth Rate by Type (2011-2016) Table Global Aquaculture Revenue and Market Share by Type (2011-2016) Table Global Aquaculture Revenue Share by Type (2011-2016) Figure Revenue Market Share of Aquaculture by Type (2011-2016) Figure Global Aquaculture Revenue Growth Rate by Type (2011-2016) Table Global Aquaculture Sales and Market Share by Regions (2011-2016) FOR ANY QUERY, REACH US @    Aquaculture Sales Global  Market Research Report 2016


Wiseguyreports.Com Adds “Aquaculture -Market Demand, Growth, Opportunities and analysis of Top Key Player Forecast to 2021” To Its Research Database This report studies sales (consumption) of Aquaculture in Global market, especially in USA, China, Europe, Japan, India and Southeast Asia, focuses on top players in these regions/countries, with sales, price, revenue and market share for each player in these regions, covering Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with sales (consumption), revenue, market share and growth rate of Aquaculture in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like USA China Europe Japan India Southeast Asia Split by product Types, with sales, revenue, price and gross margin, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into Type I Type II Type III Split by applications, this report focuses on sales, market share and growth rate of Aquaculture in each application, can be divided into Application 1 Application 2 Application 3 Global Aquaculture Sales Market Report 2016 1 Aquaculture Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Aquaculture 1.2 Classification of Aquaculture 1.2.1 Type I 1.2.2 Type II 1.2.3 Type III 1.3 Application of Aquaculture 1.3.1 Application 1 1.3.2 Application 2 1.3.3 Application 3 1.4 Aquaculture Market by Regions 1.4.1 USA Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.2 China Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.3 Europe Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.5 India Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.6 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.5 Global Market Size (Value and Volume) of Aquaculture (2011-2021) 1.5.1 Global Aquaculture Sales and Growth Rate (2011-2021) 1.5.2 Global Aquaculture Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) 9 Global Aquaculture Manufacturers Analysis 9.1 Blue Ridge Aquaculture 9.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.1.2 Aquaculture Product Type, Application and Specification 9.1.2.1 Type I 9.1.2.2 Type II 9.1.3 Blue Ridge Aquaculture Aquaculture Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.2 Cermaq 9.2.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.2.2 121 Product Type, Application and Specification 9.2.2.1 Type I 9.2.2.2 Type II 9.2.3 Cermaq Aquaculture Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.3 Cooke Aquaculture 9.3.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.3.2 143 Product Type, Application and Specification 9.3.2.1 Type I 9.3.2.2 Type II 9.3.3 Cooke Aquaculture Aquaculture Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.4 Tassal group Ltd. 9.4.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.4.2 Nov Product Type, Application and Specification 9.4.2.1 Type I 9.4.2.2 Type II 9.4.3 Tassal group Ltd. Aquaculture Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.5 Nireus Aquaculture 9.5.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.5.2 Product Type, Application and Specification 9.5.2.1 Type I 9.5.2.2 Type II 9.5.3 Nireus Aquaculture Aquaculture Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.5.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.6 Prangerent 9.6.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.6.2 Million USD Product Type, Application and Specification 9.6.2.1 Type I 9.6.2.2 Type II 9.6.3 Prangerent Aquaculture Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.6.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.7 AKVA group 9.7.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.7.2 Agriculture Industry Product Type, Application and Specification 9.7.2.1 Type I 9.7.2.2 Type II 9.7.3 AKVA group Aquaculture Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.7.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.8 The Sagun Group 9.8.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.8.2 Product Type, Application and Specification 9.8.2.1 Type I 9.8.2.2 Type II 9.8.3 The Sagun Group Aquaculture Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.8.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.9 BioMar 9.9.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.9.2 Product Type, Application and Specification 9.9.2.1 Type I 9.9.2.2 Type II 9.9.3 BioMar Aquaculture Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.9.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.10 Hendrix Genetics 9.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.10.2 Product Type, Application and Specification 9.10.2.1 Type I 9.10.2.2 Type II 9.10.3 Hendrix Genetics Aquaculture Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2011-2016) 9.10.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.11 Shandong Homey Aquatic 9.12 Shandong Oriental Ocean Polytron? 9.13 Dalian Zhangzidao fishery group? 9.14 Shandong Xunshan Fisheries Group 9.15 Zhanjiang Guolian Aquatic Products Group 9.16 Zhanjiang Evergreen Aquatic Product 9.17 Beihai Evergreen Aquatic Product 9.18 Shanwei Good Harvest Aquatic Products 9.19 Hainan Xiangtai Fishery Group 9.20 Shenzhen Allied Aquatic


News Article | December 26, 2016
Site: marketersmedia.com

— Market Research Future published a Half Cooked Research Report on Aquafeed Market that contains the information from 2011 to 2022. Global Aquafeed Market is expected to grow with the CAGR of more than 7% from 2016 to 2022. Aquafeed has become an important part of modern commercial aquaculture to provide balanced nutrition needed for fish. Traditional aquafeed manufacturers are still using fish meal and fish oil. Modern aquafeed types are produced by grinding and mixing together ingredients such as fishmeal, vegetable proteins and binding agents such as wheat which driving growth of the market. Global Aquafeed Market is projected to grow at CAGR of 7% during the forecasted period 2016 to 2022 with increase in aquaculture activities all across the world. Availability of various ingredients and strong network of suppliers is also contributing in the growth of market. Growing seafood demand and rising production capacity which will play a critical role in the market. • Cargill Inc. (U.S.) • BioMar Group (Denmark) • Waterbase Ltd (India) • BASF (Germany) • Alltech Inc. (U.S.) • Coppen International BV (Netherlands) • Ridley Corporation (Australia) • Zeigler bros. Inc. (U.S.) • Evonik Industries (Germany) • Marvesa (Netherland) Aquafeed manufacturers are experiencing a variety of developments, including introduction of new concepts such as pellet stability and palatability as well as the designation “environmental certified feeds,” which results in decreased damage to the culture system. High demand for fishmeal and its shortage has resulted in significant increase in use of various alternate protein ingredients. Significant differences have been noticed in aquafeed production starting from feeding habit to actual dietary fishmeal consumption. Taste the market data and market information presented through more than 60 market data tables and figures spread in 110 numbers of pages of the project report. Avail the in-depth table of content TOC & market synopsis on “Global Aquafeed Market Report Information from 2016 to 2022" Global Aquafeed Market is segmented by aquatic species, ingredients, additive type, life cycle and region. Major suppliers have seen introduced the concept called environmental certified highly digestible feeds. Such products also referred to as “low-pollution” feeds that serve to minimize buildup of deleterious organic and inorganic compounds within the culture system. APAC accounted for higher market share in the aquafeed during the period 2011-2015. Half of the China’s aquafeed production is for crap. Most of the shrimps feed production occurs in Asia mainly in India and Thailand. Europe and North America, growing inclination towards salmon farming, rising demand for seafood, hardiness of the species and governmental interest have led to a higher demand for the market mainly from aquaculture firms. Make an Enquiry for this Report @ https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/enquiry/global-aquafeed-market-research-report-forecast-to-2022 At Market Research Future (MRFR), we enable our customers to unravel the complexity of various industries through our Cooked Research Report (CRR), Half-Cooked Research Reports (HCRR), Raw Research Reports (3R), Continuous-Feed Research (CFR), and Market Research & Consulting Services. MRFR team have supreme objective to provide the optimum quality market research and intelligence services to our clients. Our market research studies by products, services, technologies, applications, end users, and market players for global, regional, and country level market segments, enable our clients to see more, know more, and do more, which help to answer all their most important questions. In order to stay updated with technology and work process of the industry, MRFR often plans & conducts meet with the industry experts and industrial visits for its research analyst members. For more information, please visit https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/reports/global-aquafeed-market-research-report-forecast-to-2022


« Toyota Research Institute expands autonomous vehicle development team with addition of Jaybridge Robotics team | Main | Mercedes-Benz launches new E-Class; new engines, PHEV, driver assistance systems; DRIVE PILOT » Rolls-Royce has signed a US$6.5-million contract with Tersan Shipyard in Turkey. The contract is to supply a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) propulsion package for a cargo carrier designed by NSK Ship Design for Norwegian shipowner NSK Shipping. The vessel will deliver fish food on behalf of BioMar Group. The new cargo carrier will be a slightly larger sister ship to NSK Shipping’s MS Høydal which was the world’s first LNG-powered cargo vessel and which was delivered from Tersan Shipyard in 2012. Both ships are designed by NSK Ship Design. The 81.5m vessel will be able to carry 2,700 tonnes of fish food to fish farms along the Norwegian coast. The LNG Propulsion system comprises one eight cylinder Bergen C26:33 natural gas engine rated at 2160kW; Promas combined rudder and propeller system; one tunnel thruster in the bow and one in the aft; and a Rolls-Royce automation and DP system. The vessel is also equipped with the Rolls-Royce hybrid shaft generator (HSG) propulsion system. This means the main engine also generates electricity for the ship. The Hybrid Shaft Generator will generate electrical power for the ship even if the engine power output varies, saving fuel. The HSG can also act as a propulsion motor (PTI) providing an alternative power source should LNG becomes unavailable – a prerequisite for class approval. Bergen Gas Engines from Rolls-Royce are the only pure gas engines on the market using a spark plug ignition. Alternative “dual fuel” engines use a small amount of diesel for ignition. The B and C Series engines emit around 22% (including methane slip) less CO per unit of power than a diesel engine and NO emissions are reduced by 90%. SO emissions are negligible. Bergen gas engines deliver a significant reduction in fuel and lubrication oil consumption. In addition, the clean, safe engine rooms and advanced technology can reduce maintenance costs as well as providing a more pleasant working environment for the crew. BioMar has 11 factories producing fish food, in Norway, Chile, Denmark, Scotland, Spain, France, Greece, Turkey and Costa Rica. The new cargo carrier is expected to be delivered from the yard in 2017.


Penn M.H.,Aquaculture Protein Center a CoE | Bendiksen E.A.,BioMar AS | Campbell P.,BioMar Ltd | Krogdahl A.S.,Aquaculture Protein Center a CoE
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

The current study investigated the effects of pea protein concentrate, soy protein concentrate and corn gluten, either singly at high inclusion, or in combination, each at lower inclusion, in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal brush border enzyme activity, and intestinal histology were studied in an 8-week feeding trial. Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (2.36kg initial weight) were kept in sea water at winter temperature. Five diets were tested, including a control diet based on fish meal (FM diet; 250gkg-1 fishmeal) and four low fishmeal (100gkg-1) diets: a diet containing 350gkg-1 pea protein concentrate (PPC diet), a diet containing 300gkg-1 soy protein concentrate (SPC diet), a diet containing 300gkg-1 corn gluten (CG diet) and a combination diet containing 130gkg-1 pea protein concentrate, 105gkg-1 soy protein concentrate and 105gkg-1 corn gluten (CMB diet). Fish fed CG and PPC diets showed lower SGR than fish fed the FM diet and there was a trend (P<0.09) towards a higher feed conversion (FCR) in the fish receiving the CG and PPC diets. Apparent fat digestibility was lower in fish fed SPC, PPC and CMB diets compared to FM. No difference in apparent crude protein digestibility was observed. Feeding the PPC diet resulted in reduced relative weight and inflammation in the distal intestine similar to those described for soy enteritis. Additionally, fish fed the PPC diet had reduced brush border enzyme activities in the distal intestine and increased trypsin activity in the digesta from the distal intestine region. In conclusion, pea protein concentrate at high inclusion was shown to induce an enteropathy in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon and caution should be used when including it in formulated feeds for Atlantic salmon. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Kraugerud O.F.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Jorgensen H.Y.,BioMar AS | Svihus B.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of various ingredients on the physical quality of fish feeds. Eleven fish meal-based diets, formulated to have the same levels of macronutrients, differing in either starch or protein source, were processed in a five section twin-screw extruder. The purified starch, added to reach the nutritional specifications of the diets, was significantly correlated to expansion (r = 0.405, P<0.001), durability (r = 0.276, P=0.012), and hardness (r = 0.494, P<0.001), while such correlations were not seen for the total starch level in the diets. Cellulose, added as filler to reach the same level of NSP in the diets, was negatively correlated to the expansion (r = -0.603, P<0.001). The specific mechanical energy of the extrusion process was weakly correlated to starch gelatinisation (r = 0.220, P<0.019). The present study showed that traditional parameters and classifications such as chemical composition of plant ingredients are inadequate indicators of processing effects when used in fish diets. The overall conclusion is that processing parameters needed to achieve the desired physical properties of diets, should be based on specific knowledge of each ingredient in the feed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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