Biomar

Trondheim, Norway
Trondheim, Norway
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Torrecillas S.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Robaina L.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Caballero M.J.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Montero D.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2017

The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of maximum replacement of fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) by alternative meals (AM) and oils (AO) to develop nutritious, but more eco-friendly diets for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. European sea bass of 9.8 ± 1.5 g and 9.1 ± 0.5 cm were fed nine isonitrogenous (45% crude protein) and isolipidic (21%) diets containing gradually reduced levels of FM and FO as follows (%FM/%FO): 58/15, 20/6, 20/3, 10/6, 10/3, 5/6, 5/3 and 0/0. Another diet, 0/0+, was similar to the 0/0 but supplemented with LC-PUFA from microbial and marine sources. After 90 days of feeding, European sea bass fed the 0/0 diet showed reduced (P < 0.05) final weight, final length, condition factor, perivisceral fat index and viscero-somatic index as well as feed efficiency, whereas addition of LC-PUFA significantly improved daily growth index (DGI) (0/0+ diet). Reduction of FM/FO down to 5/3 did not significantly affect fish survival or condition factor, whereas reduction to 5/6 did neither affect sea bass length or feed conversion and reduction down to 10/3 did not affected body weight, DGI and perivisceral fat or visceral weight. FM reductions down to 5% significantly reduced growth rate. FO substitution by vegetable oils (VO) led to reduced growth and increased liver to body weight ratios, liver lipid deposition and hepatocellular size. In liver and muscle, FO substitution increased n-6 fatty acids (FA) and n-6/n-3 ratio and reduced saturated FA and n-3 LC-PUFA, whereas monounsaturated FA were not increased in proportion to dietary contents. Moreover, FO reduction increased the products from Δ6 desaturase and elongases, Elovl6 and Elovl5. In conclusion, the results of this study show that it is possible to reduce dietary FM and FO levels down to 10% and 3% in mostly plant-based diets without affecting growth performance of European sea bass juveniles. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Smedley M.A.,University of Stirling | Clokie B.G.J.,University of Stirling | Migaud H.,University of Stirling | Campbell P.,Biomar | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2016

Diploid (2N) and triploid (3N) sibling post-smolts were divided between six sea pens and fed: a standard commercial nutrient package diet (2 × 2N SP, 2 × 3N SP), or an iso-energetic nutrient boosted (higher dietary protein and phosphorous) package (2 × 3N BP) until market size. 3N groups initially grew significantly faster than 2N, and by harvest, 3N BP weighed significantly more (3210 ± 87 g) than 2N SP or 3N SP (3007 ± 64 g; 2965 ± 88 g), while there was no significant difference in weight between ploidy in SP diet. Higher visible vertebral (9.6 ± 0.4%) and jaw deformities (10.6 ± 1.2%) were observed in 3N compared to 2N (0.9 ± 0.1%; 1.3 ± 0.5%). However, x-ray radiography revealed that 3N BP and 2N SP had comparable levels of severely affected individuals at time of sea transfer, while 3N SP showed a 3 fold increase in the severity of malformed individuals. The tail region (R3) in 3N SP fish had both the lowest vertebral strength and stiffness and the highest number of deformed vertebrae. Fillet quality attributes were comparable between diet and ploidy. These findings show that triploid growth rate can be sustained until harvest throughout the seawater phase, and more importantly the progression of spinal deformity beyond that at sea transfer can be stabilised by increasing dietary P during the marine phase. Statement of relevance: Tailored triploid specific aquafeeds must be formulated to support growth and prevent deformity in order to minimise welfare implications and allow exploitation of faster growth potential of triploid salmon within industry. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Berntssen M.H.G.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Ornsrud R.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Rasinger J.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Softeland L.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | And 7 more authors.
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2016

Several studies have reported on the interaction between vitamin A (VA) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-binding toxicants, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In aquaculture, the use of plant oils in novel aquafeeds can increase PAH levels while simultaneously lowering natural VA background levels, causing the need to supplement plant oil-based feeds with synthetic VA. To study dietary VA-PAH interactions, Atlantic salmon (initial weight 195 ± 0.15 g) were fed four identical plant-based diets that were supplemented with PAHs (100 and 10 mg kg-1 benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (Phe), respectively) or VA (retinyl acetate 8721 IU kg-1) separately or combined for 2.5 months in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with triplicate net-pens per diet. Dietary PAH significantly reduced hepatic VA storage, and VA-enriched diets restored hepatic VA. There was a significant PAH-VA interaction effect on hepatic BaP, but not Phe, accumulation, with reduced hepatic BaP concentrations in fish fed VA+PAH compared to fish fed PAH alone. Concurrently, PAH and VA significantly interacted in their effects on CYP1A phase I biotransformation as observed from increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, increased CYP1A protein concentration, and elevated transcription (cyp1a1 gene expression) in fish fed PAH+VA compared to PAH alone. Dietary VA supplementation alone had no significant effect on CYP1A phase I biotransformation. Metabolomic assessment showed that dietary VA caused a restoration of metabolic intermediates involved in energy metabolism that were affected by dietary PAH. Moreover, a PAH-induced growth inhibition was partially ameliorated by dietary VA supplementation. In conclusion, dietary VA interacted with PAH toxicity on the level of CYP1A-mediated detoxification, hepatic PAH accumulation, energy allocation, and growth. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Denstadli V.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Bakke A.M.,Aquaculture Protein Center | Berge G.M.,Nofima Marine | Krogdahl A.,Aquaculture Protein Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

An increasingly larger proportion of the oils used in diets for farmed fish are plant derived and rapeseed oil is most commonly used. Despite high dietary lipid levels and a marked change in lipid composition, the transport and metabolic fate of absorbed fatty acids is not fully understood in teleost fish. The main purpose of this study was to trace the postabsorptive metabolic fate of 2 fatty acids of different chain length: oleic acid [ 3H-18:1(n-9)], constituting 70% of fatty acids in rapeseed oil, and the medium-chain decanoic acid [ 14C-10:0], which does not require carrier molecules for membrane passage. The fatty acids and their metabolites were traced in portal and peripheral blood, liver, heart, skeletal muscle, and visceral adipose tissue at time intervals from 3 to 48 h after feeding. The portal vein was the primary transport route for both 10:0 and 18:1(n-9) from the intestine to the liver the first 6 h after feed intake. From 12 to 48 h, the peripheral route became increasingly more important. The study also indicates a possible direct transport route of fatty acids from the intestine to the surrounding viscera. Our data demonstrate that whereas 18:1(n-9) is primarily deposited as TG in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue, 10:0 is used by the heart and skeletal muscle as a source for rapid energy production. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.


Berntssen M.H.G.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Olsvik P.A.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Torstensen B.E.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Julshamn K.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | And 8 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

Oily fish are an important source of health promoting nutrients such as the very long chain marine omega-3 (VLC-n3) fatty acids and simultaneously a source of potentially hazardous contaminants. Fish oils that are used in fish feed are the main source for both contaminants and VLC-n3. Decontamination techniques have recently been developed to effectively remove persistent organic contaminants from fish oils. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of potentially hazardous contaminants and the health beneficial fatty acids in Atlantic salmon reared on novel decontaminated feeds. Atlantic salmon were fed for 18. months (an entire seawater production cycle) on diets based on decontaminated or non-treated (control) fish oils until market size (∼5. kg). The level of known notorious persistent organic pollutants (POPs, i.e. dioxins, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), non dioxin-like PCBs, poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), and organochlorine pesticides), as well as fatty acid composition were analysed in fish oils, the two diets, and Atlantic salmon fillet. The oil decontamination process was a two-step procedure using active carbon and short path distillation. The fillet levels of POPs in market size fish were reduced by 68-85% while the concentration of very long chain omega-3 fatty acids was reduced by 4-7%. No differences in biomarkers of dioxin-like component exposures, such as hepatic gene expression of CYP1A or AhR2B, CYP1A protein expression and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, were observed between salmon raised on normal or decontaminated feeds, thus indicating that the difference in POPs levels were of no biological significance to the fish. Atlantic salmon reared on decontaminated feeds had sum polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCB concentrations that were comparable with terrestrial food products such as beef, while the level of marine omega-3 fatty acids remained as high as for commercially farmed Atlantic salmon. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Lock E.-J.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Fjelldal P.-G.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research | Torstensen B.E.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Bjoslashrnevik M.,Bodoslash University College | And 9 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2011

Fish oil is the main contributor of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish feed. A combination of active carbon filtration and steam deodourization can remove most of the POPs. However, other fat soluble compounds are also removed, thus possibly affecting the nutritional quality of decontaminated fish oils. Sea water-adapted Atlantic salmon were fed 18months a commercially relevant diet based on either decontaminated or non-treated fish oil until market size. The development of production-related diseases (fin/skin erosion, bone deformity, cataract) and fillet quality parameters (gutted weight, fillet fat soluble vitamin levels and fatty acid composition, colour, gaping, texture and sensory quality) were assessed. No significant differences in growth performances, feed conversion ratio or quality parameters between the two dietary groups were found. The fillet levels of fat soluble vitamins in market size fish remained unaltered, and only marginal differences were observed in fatty acid profiles. There was a significantly lower percentage of deformed vertebrae in the tail region of fish fed the decontaminated fish oil diets, indicating a positive effect of the use of decontaminated fish oil. No apparent negative effects of the use of decontaminated fish oil in Atlantic salmon diets were reported in this study. © 2011 NIFES.


PubMed | GIFAS, BioMar, University of Oslo, NOFIMA and National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research
Type: | Journal: Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) | Year: 2016

Several studies have reported on the interaction between vitamin A (VA) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-binding toxicants, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In aquaculture, the use of plant oils in novel aquafeeds can increase PAH levels while simultaneously lowering natural VA background levels, causing the need to supplement plant oil-based feeds with synthetic VA. To study dietary VA-PAH interactions, Atlantic salmon (initial weight 1950.15g) were fed four identical plant-based diets that were supplemented with PAHs (100 and 10mgkg(-1) benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (Phe), respectively) or VA (retinyl acetate 8721IUkg(-1)) separately or combined for 2.5 months in a 22 factorial design, with triplicate net-pens per diet. Dietary PAH significantly reduced hepatic VA storage, and VA-enriched diets restored hepatic VA. There was a significant PAH-VA interaction effect on hepatic BaP, but not Phe, accumulation, with reduced hepatic BaP concentrations in fish fed VA+PAH compared to fish fed PAH alone. Concurrently, PAH and VA significantly interacted in their effects on CYP1A phase I biotransformation as observed from increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, increased CYP1A protein concentration, and elevated transcription (cyp1a1 gene expression) in fish fed PAH+VA compared to PAH alone. Dietary VA supplementation alone had no significant effect on CYP1A phase I biotransformation. Metabolomic assessment showed that dietary VA caused a restoration of metabolic intermediates involved in energy metabolism that were affected by dietary PAH. Moreover, a PAH-induced growth inhibition was partially ameliorated by dietary VA supplementation. In conclusion, dietary VA interacted with PAH toxicity on the level of CYP1A-mediated detoxification, hepatic PAH accumulation, energy allocation, and growth.


Lund I.,Technical University of Denmark | Dalsgaard J.,Technical University of Denmark | Jacobsen C.,Technical University of Denmark | Hansen J.H.,Innovation Center Denmark | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2013

Producing organic fish diets requires that the use of both fishmeal and fish oil (FO) be minimized and replaced by sustainable, organic sources. The purpose of the present study was to replace FO with organic oils and evaluate the effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily specific growth rate (SGR) and nutrient digestibility in diets in which fishmeal protein was partly substituted by organic plant protein concentrates. It is prohibited to add antioxidants to organic oils, and therefore the effects of force-oxidizing the oils (including FO) on feed intake and nutrient digestibility was furthermore examined. Four organic oils with either a relatively high or low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids were considered: linseed oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and grapeseed oil. Substituting FO with organic oils did not affect feed intake (P > 0.05), FCR or SGR (P > 0.05) despite very different dietary fatty acid profiles. All organic plant oils had a positive effect on apparent lipid digestibility compared with the FO diet (P < 0.05), whereas there were no effects on the apparent digestibility of other macronutrients when compared with the FO diet (P > 0.05). Organic vegetable oils did not undergo auto-oxidation as opposed to the FO, and the FO diet consequently had a significantly negative effect on the apparent lipid digestibility. Feed intake was not affected by oxidation of any oils. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that it is possible to fully substitute FO with plant-based organic oils without negatively affecting nutrient digestibility and growth performance. Furthermore, plant-based organic oils are less likely to oxidize than FOs, prolonging the shelf life of such organic diets. © 2012 The Animal Consortium.


Hemre G.-I.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Lock E.-J.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Olsvik P.A.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Hamre K.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | And 8 more authors.
PeerJ | Year: 2016

Aiming to re-evaluate current recommendations for nutrient supplementations when Atlantic salmon are fed diets based on plant ingredients, two regression experiments, with parr and post-smolt, were conducted. A control diet was included to evaluate if ingredients supplied sufficient nutrients without any added nutrient package (NP). The nutrient package consisted of vitamins B, C, E, minerals, cholesterol, methionine, taurine and histidine. This paper focus on B-vitamins. In parr, growth, health and welfare parameters responded on NP additions, but this was not observed in the seawater stage. During three months of feeding, parr tripled their weight. Parr given diets added the NP above NRC (2011) showed improved protein retention, and reduced liver and viscera indices. Post-smolt fed the same diets during five months showed a doubling of weight, but did not respond to the variation in NP to the same extent as parr. Significant regressions were obtained in body compartments for several of the B-vitamins in the premix. Whole body biotin concentration was unaffected by micronutrient premix level, and mRNA expression of the enzymes dependent of biotin showed only weak increases with increased biotin. Muscle thiamine plateaued at a diet level similar to NRC (2011) recommendation in freshwater, and showed stable values independent on premix addition in seawater. The mRNA expression of the enzyme G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) is sensitive to thiamine availability; results did not indicate any need to add thiamine above levels recommended for fish in general. Niacin showed a steady increase in whole body concentrations as feed niacin increased. Muscle riboflavin peaked at a diet level of 12.4 mg kg-1. Sufficient riboflavin is important to avoid e.g., development of cataract. Cataract was not registered to be any problem, neither in fresh-nor in seawater. Cobalamin (B 12 ) in muscle and liver was saturated at 0.17 mg kg-1 diet. Muscle pyridoxine showed a dosedependent level in muscle, and peaked around 10 mg kg -1 diet. White muscle ASAT (asparagine amino transferase) activity steadily increased, with indications of stable values when dietary pyridoxine was around 10-16 mg kg -1 diet. Pantothenic acid increased in gill tissue up to a level of 5.5 mg kg -1 soft gill tissue; at a dietary level of 22 mg kg-1. Improved performance, and coverage of metabolic need for niacin was at a dietary level of 66 mg kg -1, riboflavin 10-12 mg kg-1, pyridoxine 10 mg kg-1 and panthotenic acid 22 mg kg-1. Based on these results, recommended B-vitamin supplementation in plant based diets for Atlantic salmon should be adjusted. © 2016 Hemre et al.


Berntssen M.H.G.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Tollefsen K.-E.,Norwegian Institute for Water Research | Tollefsen K.-E.,University of Life science | Handy R.D.,University of Plymouth | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

Seawater adapted Atlantic salmon post-smolts were fed graded levels of technical endosulfan (0.005, 0.05, and 1 mg kg- 1) for 16 weeks. Markers of endocrine disruption (plasma vitellogenin, and plasma sex steroid-binding proteins) and oxidative stress (hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity, and α-tocopherol level) were not affected by dietary concentrations used in this study. Adaptive responses such as biotransformation (hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase EROD activity) was significantly induced at the lowest and second lowest exposure levels (0.005 and 0.05 mg kg- 1), but not at the highest exposure levels. Adverse effects such as significantly increased hepatic somatic index was observed in the 1 mg kg- 1 exposure group, however, apparent markers of liver damage (plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase level, or liver histopathological necrosis) were absent. The relative amount (%) of red pulp in spleen significantly increased in fish fed 0.005 and 0.05 mg kg- 1 whereas haematology (e.g. blood erythrocyte count and haemoglobin) remained similar to that of the control group. Levels of 0.005 and 0.05 mg kg- 1 did not cause overall adverse effects, whereas levels of 1 mg kg- 1 caused adverse effects as seen from a lacking hepatic biotransformation (EROD) activity and increased hepatic somatic index. Histological changes such as areas of vacuolization and fusion of villi in the intestine at lowest exposure levels warrant further investigation on the effects of dietary endosulfan exposure on nutritional performance and growth. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Loading Biomar collaborators
Loading Biomar collaborators