Baltimore, MD, United States
Baltimore, MD, United States

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Cigarette smoking is endemic among HIV-positive populations and is related to substantial morbidity and mortality. Research has largely focused on individual-level characteristics associated with smoking, with less attention to social factors. We aimed to explore individual- and social-level characteristics associated with current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV. Data came from 358 individuals on antiretroviral therapy interviewed in a study on informal HIV caregiving, conducted in Baltimore, MD, USA. Most participants (75 %) were current smokers and 45 % reported current illegal drug use. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, current drug use (aOR 2.90, 95 % CI 1.58-5.30), 12-step program participation (aOR 1.74, 95 % CI 1.02-2.97), and having a main Supporter who is a current smoker (aOR 1.93, 95 % CI 1.12-3.33) were associated with current smoking. Findings suggest the importance of social-level factors in cigarette smoking among HIV seropositive drug users and have implications for developing targeted smoking cessation interventions for smokers living with HIV. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Resumen: El consumo de cigarrillos es endémico en las poblaciones con VIH y se relaciona con la morbosidad y la mortalidad. Investigaciónes se ha centrado, en gran medida, enlas características individuales asociadas con el consumo de cigarillos, con menos atención a los factores sociales. El objetivo fue explorar las características al nivel individual y social asociadas con el consumo actual de cigarrillos entre las personas que viven con VIH. Los datos provinieron de 358 personas recibiendo tratamiento antirretroviral entrevistados en un estudio sobre el cuidado informal de VIH, realizado en Baltimore, Maryland. La mayoría de los participantes (75 %) eran fumadores y el 45 % informó el uso actual de drogas ilegales. En los análisis de regresión logística ajustados, consumo actual de drogas (ORa 2.90, IC 95 % 1.58-5.30 95 %), participación en el programa de 12 pasos (ORa 1.74, IC 95 % 1.02-2.97 95 %), y tener un partidario principal que es un fumador actual (ORa 1.93, IC 95 % 1.12-3.33) se asociaron con el consumo actual de cigarillos. Los resultados sugieren la importancia de los factores al nivel social, en el consumo de cigarrillos entre los usuarios de drogas seropositivos al VIH y tienen implicaciones para el desarrollo de intervenciones para dejar de fumar, dirigidos a los fumadores que viven con el VIH. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Goodwin A.K.,Johns Hopkins University | Goodwin A.K.,Behavioral Biology Research Center | Gibson K.M.,Washington State University | Weerts E.M.,Johns Hopkins University
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2013

Background: 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BD) is a gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) pro-drug, with multiple commercial uses, and a drug of abuse. Although there are case reports of a withdrawal syndrome following 1,4-BD use, no studies have evaluated the physical dependence potential of 1,4-BD and characterized the time course of withdrawal. Methods: Vehicle and then 1,4-BD were administered continuously 24. h/day via intragastric catheters in male baboons (Papio anubis, n=3). Dosing was initiated at 100. mg/kg and increased by 100. mg/kg/day to 400. mg/kg. After a stabilization period, doses of 500 and then 600. mg/kg/day were each maintained for 3-4 weeks. Plasma levels of 1,4-BD and GHB were determined for each dose condition. Physical dependence was assessed via administration of a GABA-B antagonist (precipitated withdrawal test) during administration of the 600. mg/kg dose and via abrupt termination of chronic 1,4-BD administration (spontaneous withdrawal test). Outcome measures included the number of food pellets earned, performance on a fine-motor task, observed behaviors, and plasma levels of GHB and 1,4-BD. Results: Following maintenance of 1,4-BD 600. mg/kg for 3 weeks, the number of food pellets earned was significantly decreased. At the end of chronic 1,4-BD dosing, the levels of GHB in plasma ranged from 1290 to 2300. μmol/L and levels of 1,4-BD in plasma ranged from 13.1 to 37.9. μmol/L. Signs of physical dependence were observed following precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal tests. Seizures were not observed. Conclusions: These data indicate chronic 1,4-BD produced physical dependence in baboons and the withdrawal syndrome can be characterized as mild to intermediate. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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