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Piedras Negras, Mexico

Venegas-Meneses B.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Padilla J.F.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Juarez C.E.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Moran J.L.,Autonomous University of Puebla | And 4 more authors.
Endocrine | Year: 2015

Hormonal and neural signals regulate the ovarian follicular development. The present study’s hypothesis is that the blockade of ovarian dopamine receptors locally will affect follicle development and ovulation. Groups of adult 4-day cyclic rats of the CII-ZV strain on estrus, diestrus-1, diestrus-2, or proestrus day were injected with vehicle, haloperidol (DA2 > DA1 blocker), sulpiride (DA2 blocker), or SCH-23390 (DA1 blocker) into the bursa of both ovaries at 08:00, 13:00, or 20:00 h. Animals were sacrificed the following predicted estrus day. The following treatments blocked ovulation: injecting haloperidol to rats on estrus or diestrus-1 at 8:00, 13:00, or 20:00 h and to rats on diestrus-2 at 08:00, or 20:00 h; injecting SCH-23390 to rats on diestrus-1 at 8:00, 13:00, or 20:00 h; injecting sulpiride to rats on estrus at 20:00 h, diestrus-1 at 08:00, 13:00, or 20:00 h and to rats on diestrus-2 at 08:00 h. In rats treated with any of the dopamine antagonists that blocked ovulation, injecting GnRH at 14.00 h on the next predicted proestrus day restored ovulation. Injecting estradiol benzoate at 14.00 h of the next predicted diestrus-2 restored ovulation in some animals treated with haloperidol on estrus or diestrus-2 and was ineffective in rats treated on diestrus-1. In rats treated with sulpiride or SCH-23390 ovulation occurred in most animals (SCH-23390: 6/8; SPD: 9/12). Present results suggest that dopamine ovarian receptors’ participation in regulating follicular development and ovulation varies along the estrus cycle, with their most prominent activity occurring on diestrus-1. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Morales-Ledesma L.,Biology of Reproduction Research Unit | Ramirez D.A.,Biology of Reproduction Research Unit | Vieyra E.,Biology of Reproduction Research Unit | Trujillo A.,Autonomous University of Puebla | And 3 more authors.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2011

In the present study we analyzed the existence of asymmetry in the secretion of steroid hormones in pre-pubertal female rats treated with unilateral ovariectomy (ULO) or unilateral perforation of the abdominal wall (sham-surgery). Treated rats were sacrificed at different times after surgery. Since sham-surgery had an apparent effect on the age of first vaginal estrous (FVE) and serum levels hormone, the results of the sham surgery groups were used to assess the effects of their respective surgery treatment groups. On the day of FVE, compensatory ovulation (CO) and compensatory ovarian hypertrophy (COH) were similar in animals with ULO, regardless of the ovary remaining in situ. In ULO treated animals, progesterone (P4) levels were higher than in animals with sham-surgery one hour after treatment but lower in rats sacrificed at FEV. Left-ULO resulted in lower testosterone (T) concentration 48 and 72 hours after surgery. In rats with Right-ULO lower T concentrations were observed in rats sacrificed one or 72 hours after surgery, and at FVE. ULO (left or right) resulted in lower estradiol (E2) concentrations one or 72 hours after treatment. In rats with Left-ULO, E2 levels were higher 48 hours after surgery and at FVE. Left-ULO resulted in higher levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) five hours after surgery and at FVE. FSH levels were higher in rats with Right-ULO sacrificed on FVE. The present results suggest that in the pre-pubertal rat both ovaries have similar capacities to secrete P4, and that the right ovary has a higher capacity to secrete E2. Taken together, the present results support the idea that the effects of ULO result from the decrease in glandular tissue and changes in the neural information arising from the ovary. © 2011 Morales-Ledesma et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Rosas G.,Biology of Reproduction Research Unit | Ramirez M.I.,Biology of Reproduction Research Unit | Linares R.,Biology of Reproduction Research Unit | Trujillo A.,Autonomous University of Puebla | And 2 more authors.
Endocrine | Year: 2015

In vitro the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) stimulates progesterone, androgens, and estradiol secretion, and the effects are time-dependent. The present study analyzed the acute (1 h) and sub-acute (24 h) effects of unilateral injection of VIP into the ovarian bursa on each day of the estrous cycle on progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol serum levels. Cyclic 60-day-old virgin female rats on diestrus-1, diestrus-2, proestrus, or estrus were injected with saline or VIP 10−6 M into the left or right ovarian bursa. One hour after saline injection on each day of estrus cycle, progesterone levels were higher than in control animals. The acute effects of saline solution on testosterone and estradiol levels were asymmetric and varied during the estrous cycle. In comparison with saline groups, the effects of VIPergic stimulation on progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol serum levels depend on the time elapsed between treatment and autopsy and vary during the estrous cycle. An acute asymmetric response from the ovaries to the VIP was observed at diestrus-1, diestrus-2, and proestrus on progesterone and estradiol levels. The asymmetries on testosterone levels were observed at diestrus-1, diestrus-2, and estrus days. The present results suggest that in the cyclic rat, each ovary has different sensitivities to VIPergic stimulation which depends on the endocrine status of the animal. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Vieyra E.,Biology of Reproduction Research Unit | Ramirez D.A.,Biology of Reproduction Research Unit | Lagunas N.,Biology of Reproduction Research Unit | Cardenas M.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | And 5 more authors.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2016

Background: The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the cholinergic system of various regions of the hypothalamus participate in the regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin secretion, which are necessary for the occurrence of ovulation. In the present study, our goal was to analyse the effects of unilaterally blocking the muscarinic receptors in the SCN on ovulation and steroid secretion. Methods: Cyclic rats were randomly allotted to one of the experimental groups. Groups of 8-14 rats were anaesthetized and microinjected with 0.3 μl of saline or a solution of atropine (62.5 ng in 0.3 μl of saline) into the left or right SCN at 09.00 or 19.00 h during diestrus-1 or on the proestrus day. The rats were euthanized on the predicted day of oestrus, and evaluated ovulation and levels of progesterone and oestradiol. Other groups of 10 rats were microinjected with atropine into the left or right SCNs at 09.00 h on the proestrus day, were euthanized eight h later, and luteinizing hormone (LH) was measured. Results: At 09.00 or 19.00 h during diestrus-1, atropine microinjections into the SCNs on either side did not modify ovulation. The atropine microinjections performed at 09.00 h of proestrus into either side of the SCN blocked ovulation (right SCN: 1/9 ovulated vs. 9/10 in the saline group; left SCN: 8/14 ovulated vs. 10/10 in the saline group). The LH levels at 17.00 h in the rats that were microinjected with atropine at 09.00 h of proestrus were lower than those of the controls. In the non-ovulating atropine-treated rats, the injection of synthetic LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) restored ovulation. Atropine treatment at 19.00 h of proestrus on either side of the SCN did not modify ovulation, while the progesterone and oestradiol levels were lower. Conclusion: Based on the present results, we suggest that the cholinergic neural information arriving on either side of the SCN is necessary for the pre-ovulatory secretion of LH to induce ovulation. Additionally, the regulation of progesterone and oestradiol secretion by the cholinergic innervation of the SCN varies with the time of day, the day of the cycle, and the affected SCN. © 2016 The Author(s). Source


Linares R.,Biology of Reproduction Research Unit | Hernandez D.,Biology of Reproduction Research Unit | Moran C.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Chavira R.,Institute Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | And 3 more authors.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Background: Injecting estradiol valerate (EV) to pre-pubertal or adult female rat results in effects similar to those observed in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). One of the mechanisms involved in PCOS development is the hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. In EV-induced PCOS rats, the unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) restores ovulation of the innervated ovary. This suggests that, in addition to the sympathetic innervation, other neural mechanisms are involved in the development/maintenance of PCOS. The aims of present study were analyze if the vagus nerve is one of the neural pathways participating in PCOS development.Methods: Ten-day old rats were injected with EV dissolved in corn oil. At 24-days of age sham-surgery, unilateral, or bilateral sectioning of the vagus nerve (vagotomy) was performed on these rats. The animals were sacrificed at 90-92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrous preceded by a pro-estrus smear.Results: In EV-induced PCOS rats, unilateral or bilateral vagotomy restored ovulation in both ovaries. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in PCOS rats with unilateral or bilateral vagotomy were lower than in control rats.Conclusions: This result suggests that in EV-induced PCOS rats the vagus nerve is a neural pathway participating in maintaining PCOS. The vagus nerve innervates the ovaries directly and indirectly through its synapsis in the celiac-superior-mesenteric ganglion, where the somas of neurons originating in the SON are located. Then, it is possible that vagotomy effects in EV-induced PCOS rats may be explained as a lack of communication between the central nervous system and the ovaries. © 2013 Linares et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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