Biology and Medical Research Unit

Rabat, Morocco

Biology and Medical Research Unit

Rabat, Morocco
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El Hamdani W.,Biology and Medical Research Unit | El Hamdani W.,Mohammed V University | Hadami K.,Biology and Medical Research Unit | Hadami K.,Military Hospital Mohammed V | And 13 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Biology | Year: 2017

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in the regulation of several cellular processes and in the development of many human cancers. Somatic mutations of EGFR at tyrosine kinase domain have been associated with clinical response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in lung cancer patients. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of point mutations in EGFR for future use of TKI in clinical treatment of bladder cancer. A total, 50 Moroccan patient specimens with bladder cancer and 48 healthy controls were analysed for EGFR mutations in the region delimiting exons 18-21 by PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Our results showed the absence of mutations in the EGFR kinase domain in these exons in all analysed specimens. However, sequence analysis of the EGFR-TK domain, revealed the presence of (G2607A) polymorphism at exon 20. Statistical analysis showed significant difference in the frequencies of G2607A polymorphism between cancer cases and healthy controls (p=0.0001) and the frequencies of the GG and GA/AA genotypes among the cancer cases were 28% and 72%, respectively. Moreover, allelic frequencies of G2607A polymorphism showed significant difference between cancer cases and healthy controls (p=0.0025). Data analysis showed no significant association between G2607A polymorphism and patients' age, clinical stage and tumor grade (p > 0.05). However, a significant difference was found between this polymorphism and patients' sex that could be a sampling bias due to the very limited number of women with bladder cancer. Our findings highlight that, mutations in EGFR kinase domain is a rare event in bladder cancer, suggesting, that treatment of bladder cancer patients with TKI may not be effective. However, the EGFR G2607A polymorphism in exon 20 is frequent in bladder cancer cases and must be further explored for its relevance in the treatment of this disease. © 2017 by the C.M.B. Association.

Laantri N.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | Laantri N.,Chouab Doukkali University | Attaleb M.,Biology and Medical Research Unit | Kandil M.,Chouab Doukkali University | And 6 more authors.
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant tumor which arises in surface epithelium of the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. There's is evidence that Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is associated to NPC development. However, many epidemiologic studies point to a connection between viral infections by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and NPC. Method: Seventy Moroccan patients with NPC were screened for EBV and HPV. EBV detection was performed by PCR amplification of BZLF1 gene, encoding the ZEBRA (Z Epstein-Barr Virus Replication Activator) protein, and HPV infection was screened by PCR amplification with subsequent typing by hybridization with specific oligonucleotides for HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45 and 59. Results: The age distribution of our patients revealed a bimodal pattern. Sixty two cases (88.9%) were classified as type 3 (undifferentiated carcinoma), 6 (8.6%) as type 2 (non keratinizing NPC) and only 2 (2.9%) cases were classified as type 1 (keratinizing NPC). EBV was detected in all NPC tumors, whereas HPV DNA was revealed in 34% of cases (24/70). Molecular analysis showed that 20.8% (5/24) were infected with HPV31, and the remaining were infected with other oncogenic types (i.e., HPV59, 16, 18, 33, 35 and 45). In addition, statistical analysis showed that there's no association between sex or age and HPV infection (P > 0.1). Conclusion: Our data indicated that EBV is commonly associated with NPC in Moroccan patients and show for the first time that NPC tumours from Moroccan patients harbour high risk HPV genotypes. © 2011 Laantri et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hadami K.,Biology and Medical Research Unit | Ameziane El Hassani R.,Biology and Medical Research Unit | Ameur A.,Military hospital Mohammed V | Dakka N.,Biochemistry and Immunology Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) | Year: 2016

Worldwide, Bladder cancer is the most frequent male malignancy. It is the third most common male malignancy in Morocco. The risk factors for developing bladder cancer are multiples including dietary conditions, environmental exposure and oxidative stress. GPX1 gene encoding for the human cellular antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase1 is a key factor in the cell detoxification process. GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism is associated with a decrease of enzyme activity and may contribute to bladder cancer susceptibility. The present case-control study was planned to assess the presence of GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism in Moroccan population to determine whether it is associated with the risk of developing bladder cancer in Moroccan patients. A total of 32 patients with bladder cancer and 40 healthy controls were enrolled. Genotyping of the GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism was carried out by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Pro198Leu polymorphism was observed in both bladder cancer patients and healthy controls. No significant association between the polymorphism and bladder cancer occurrence was found (Pro/Leu vs. Pro/Pro: p=0.425; Leu vs. Pro: p=0.435). For the analysis of Pro198Leu polymorphism and progression of bladder cancer, no association was observed neither for stages (Pro/Leu vs. Pro/Pro: p=0.500; Leu vs. Pro: p=0.500) nor grades (Pro/Leu vs. Pro/Pro: p=0.415; Leu vs. Pro: p=0.427). Our results clearly showed no significant association between Pro198Leu polymorphism and risk of bladder cancer in our population, suggesting that the effect of this polymorphism on bladder cancer development might be a result of a combination with other genetic alterations and/or non-genetic variables such as diet and lifestyle factors.

Bakkali M.E.L.,Biology and Medical Research Unit | Bahri M.,Biology and Medical Research Unit | Gmouh S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Jaddi H.,Biology and Medical Research Unit | And 3 more authors.
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2013

The uncontrolled disposal of bottom ash generated by the incineration units of hazardous and infected wastes in developed countries are the main cause of significant damage, such as contamination of the soil, as well as surface and underground waters, which may put both the environment and public health at risk. In Morocco, little information is available on the chemical properties of the resulting ashes. In this study, 16 hospital waste ash samples were collected from the incinerators of the two main hospitals in Rabat: Ibn Sina and Cheikh Zayd. A series of tests was conducted, including particle size distribution, mineralogical and chemical composition, and heavy metal leaching behaviour. The results showed that the samples were composed mainly of P2O5 (18%), SiO2 (17%), Na2O (16%), CaO (14%) and SO3 (10%). Moreover, chemical analysis clearly demonstrated that medical waste (MW) contains large amounts of waste generated by domestic activities in the hospital, with a lack of sorting system in the monitoring of MW. Furthermore, the ashes contained high concentrations of heavy metals such as zinc, lead, chromium and nickel with a vast range of 0.5-25071 mg/kg. Leaching tests showed that the extracted amounts of all the heavy metals were lower, with concentrations < 2.85 mg/kg. Comparison of the corresponding heavy metal concentrations with the limit values set by the Council Decision 2003/33/EC allowed us to conclude that bottom ashes meet the waste acceptance criteria regarding these heavy metals. © 2013 The Author(s).

PubMed | German Cancer Research Center, Ain ShamsUniversity, Institute Pasteur du Maroc and Biology and Medical Research Unit
Type: | Journal: Infectious agents and cancer | Year: 2016

Cancer is typically classified as a leading non-communicable disease; however, infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papilloma virus (HPV), contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Less developed countries, including countries of the North African (NA) region, endure the highest burden of infection-related cancers. The five most common infection-associated cancers in NA in order of incidence are bladder cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This review aims to outline the epidemiologic pattern of infection-associated cancers in five NA countries (namely: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) highlighting the similarities and differences across the region. The present study employed an initial literature review of peer-reviewed articles selected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and World Health Organization (WHO) databases based on key word searches without restriction on publication dates. Original research articles and reports written in French, as well as data from institutional reports and regional meeting abstracts were also included in this extensive review. Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco were selected to be the focus of this review.

Lahlou O.,National Institute of Hygiene | Millet J.,Institute Pasteur Of Guadeloupe | Chaoui I.,Biology and Medical Research Unit | Sabouni R.,National Institute of Hygiene | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem in Morocco. Characterization of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypic lineages, important to understand the dynamic of the disease, was hereby addressed for the first time at a national level. Methodology/Principal Findings: Spoligotyping was performed on a panel of 592 M. tuberculosis complex strains covering a 2-year period (2004-2006). It identified 129 patterns: 105 (n = 568 strains) corresponded to a SIT number in the SITVIT2 database, while 24 patterns were labeled as orphan. A total of 523 (88.3%) strains were clustered vs. 69 or 11.7% unclustered. Classification of strains within 3 large phylogenetical groups was as follows: group 1- ancestral/TbD1+/PGG1 (EAI, Bovis, Africanum), group 2- modern/TbD1-/PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS), group 3- evolutionary recent/TbD1-/PGG2/3 (Haarlem, X, S, T, LAM; alternatively designated as the Euro-American lineage). As opposed to group 3 strains (namely LAM, Haarlem, and T) that predominated (86.5% of all isolates), 6 strains belonged to group 2 (Beijing n = 5, CAS n = 1), and 3 strains (BOV_1 n = 2, BOV_4-CAPRAE) belonged to ancestral group 1 (EAI and AFRI lineage strains were absent). 12-loci MIRU-VNTR typing of the Casablanca subgroup (n = 114 strains) identified 71 patterns: 48 MITs and 23 orphan patterns; it allowed to reduce the clustering rate from 72.8% to 29.8% and the recent transmission rate from 64% to 20.2%. Conclusion: The M. tuberculosis population structure in Morocco is highly homogeneous, and is characterized by the predominance of the Euro-American lineages, namely LAM, Haarlem, and T, which belong to the "evolutionary recent" TbD1-/PGG2/3 phylogenetic group. The combination of spoligotyping and MIRUs decreased the clustering rate significantly, and should now be systematically applied in larger studies. The methods used in this study appear well suited to monitor the M. tuberculosis population structure for an enhanced TB management program in Morocco. © 2012 Lahlou et al.

Aboukhalid R.,Mohammed V University | Aboukhalid R.,Biology and Medical Research Unit | Bouabdellah M.,Mohammed V University | Bouabdellah M.,Biology and Medical Research Unit | And 7 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2010

A sample of 267 unrelated Moroccan males from different ethnic groups (Arabs, Berbers and Sahrawi), was typed for 17 Y-STR loci (DYS19, DYS385, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, Y GATA H4). Discrimination capacity (96.3%) and haplotype diversity (99.91%) were calculated. A total of 257 haplotypes were identified, of which 237 were unique and 10 were found in two individuals each. DYS385 showed the highest diversity (0.887) followed by DYS458 (0.820) as a single locus marker. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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