Grain productivity and nitrogen fractions of maize under organic fertilization in semiarid region Brazil [Produtividade de grãos e frações nitrogenadas do milho submetido a manejo de adubos orgânicos na região semiárida]
Da Silva T.O.,Federal University of Sergipe |
Menezes R.S.C.,Federal University of Pernambuco |
Alves R.N.,Instituto Federal Of Educacao |
Primo D.C.,Biologo |
Dos Santos Silva G.B.M.,Cidade Universitaria
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2011
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different organic fertilization treatments on maize grain productivity and nitrogen fractions in semi-arid NE Brazil. The experimental plots were established in a Entissol in randomized blocks in a factorial design (2 x 3) + 2 that included two methods of fertilizer application (surface applied or incorporated) and three types of organic fertilization (15 t.ha -1 of animal manure, 15 t.ha -1 of Gliricidia sepium prunings, 15 t.ha -1 of Croton sonderianus prunings) and control plots without fertilization). The method of application and the three types of organic fertilizer had different effects on maize grain productivity and nutrition. For example, all types of organic fertilizers, when surface applied, significantly increased maize grain productivity and N concentration. Maize leaf N content was greater after surface application of G. sepium prunings. Surface application of manure increased leaf P concentration, but leaf K was greater after incorporation of C. sonderianus prunings. Maize leaf N fractions were inversely related to grain productivity.
Long-term monitoring of vegetative stabilization of a road slope of gnaisse saprolite in Minas Gerais [Monitoramento em longo prazo da contenção vegetativa em talude rodoviário de saprolito de gnaisse em Minas Gerais]
Einloft R.,Engineering Florestal |
Ruiz H.A.,Federal University of Espirito Santo |
da Costa L.M.,Federal University of Viçosa |
Schaefer C.E.G.R.,Federal University of Viçosa |
And 3 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2013
The succession of events after revegetation has rarely been studied. A plant consortium with a good initial development may come to be inadequate later, resulting in exposed soil, susceptible to the weathering forces. The objective of this study was to monitor characteristics associated with vegetative stabilization and, in the long term, the appearance of new cover forms or soil exposure in response to planting grasses and legumes on a steep road slope alongside a highway. After four years of recovery, new forms of soil cover or exposure were observed in the experimental plots, called typologies, described below: brachiaria grass cover, legume plants, gordura grass, invasive species, geotextile, decomposing residues, microphytic crusts, soil crust, exposed soil, erosion, and rock outcrops. The characteristics of these typologies were quantified by two surveys, before and after the rainy season. In addition, the different typologies of each experimental plot were mapped; these maps were used to analyze the dynamics, spatial distribution, frequency, and competition among typologies identified in the two surveys. Of the total 11 typologies, the vegetation species and microphytic crusts were the most relevant for revegetation. Microphytic crusts were very important in the initial stage of ecological succession, resulting in rapid stabilization and reclamation of degraded surfaces and favoring the appearance of invasive species. The seasonal variation between the two surveys showed that erosion and soil exposure decreased with increase in vegetation cover and microphytic crust development.
Biologic, morphologic, and genetic aspects of Hypothenemus obscurus and Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) [Aspectos biológicos, morfológicos y genéticos de Hypothenemus obscurus e Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)]
Constantino L.M.,Entomologia |
Navarro L.,Biologo |
Berrio A.,Biologo |
Acevedo F.E.,I.A. Entomologia |
And 2 more authors.
Revista Colombiana de Entomologia | Year: 2011
There are two species of the genus Hypothenemus of economical importance in Colombia: H. hampei and H. obscurus. The first is the most destructive insect pest of coffee worldwide, while the latter attacks several crops including macadamia nut and coffee. This research was carried out in order to compare, biologically, morphologically and genetically, these two species to establish differences which explain the adaptation of coffee berry borer to coffee plants. The insects were reared on macadamia and coffee artificial diets. The morphology was studied through observations under light microscope, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The genetic comparisons were made using cytogenetics, C-Banding of chromosomes, AFLP molecular fingerprints and parthenogenesis bioassays. H. obscurus life cycle (egg to adult) was estimated in 28.5±. 1.3 days, while H. hampei was 26.8±. 1.0 on macadamia and coffee diets respectively. Both species could develop on the alternative diet; however, their reproductive capacity was significantly reduced. The morphological comparisons showed specific characteristics for each species, and allowed to explain their feeding habits. The cytogenetic analysis showed facultative heterochromatization which offered identical functional haplo-diploid patterns in both species. We also reported similar kariotypes and chromosome number for both species. There was no evidence of parthenogenesis in these two species and each one showed distinguishable DNA fragments in their fingerprints. This basic information will allow advancing in the comparison of the transcriptomes of these two species in order to elucidate the genetic basis that supports the monophagous habits of coffee berry borer.
Evaluation of the restoration process of a degraded permanent preservation area in the south of Minas Gerais, Brazil [Avaliação do processo de restauração de área de preservação permanente degradada no sul de minas gerais]
Silva R.G.,Biologa |
Vilas Boas Faria R.A.,Engenheira Florestal |
Moreira L.G.,Engenheiro Agronomo |
De Lima Pereira T.,Biologo |
And 2 more authors.
Revista em Agronegocio e Meio Ambiente | Year: 2016
Studies on the ecological restoration of Permanent Presevation Areas (PPAs) around water sources are being done with regularity during the last years due to importance society is giving to these ecosystems. Riparian zones, protected by the Forest Code, are systems with complex interactivities with great human pressure and anthropic activities. Current paper evaluates the capacity of restoration of riparian vegetation around a degraded water spring in the sub-basin of the river Capivari in the municipality of Larvas MG Brazil. Ten plots measuring 10m2 within a transection of 100 m, starting from the source and following the PPAA's humidity gradient were focused for phytosociological analysis. Foregrounded on the regenerating layer, high numbers of Eremanthus incanus and Vernonanthura phosphorica, species of the family Asteraceae, were reported. Most were pioneer, zoochore and young species which characterized the area as within the initial succession phase even after 9 years of the planting of seedlings for enrichment. The above may have occurred due to the high biomass of grass in the area under analysis which established an advantageous competition on native species. Although slightly relevant, part of the propagules in the PPA derived from seed bank of the planted seedlings. Results showed the conservation state of PPA and the need for human intervention for the control of invading exotic species coupled to environmental improvement.
Incidence and severity of white mold for soybean under different cultural practices and local meteorological conditions [Incidência e severidade de mofo-branco em soja sob diferentes práticas culturais e condições meteorológicas locais]
Beruski G.C.,University of Sao Paulo |
Pereira A.B.,Engenheiro Agronomo |
Jaccoud-Filho D.S.,Biologo |
Sartori F.F.,University of Sao Paulo |
Sentelhas P.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Bioscience Journal | Year: 2015
The Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary fungus is a necrotrophic and polyphagous pathogen with soybean crop as one of its most important hosts. However in order to occur epidemics caused by such a pathogen it is necessary that the climatic conditions, mainly air temperature and relative humidity be favorable to the occurrence and development of the disease. The current research aimed to assess the incidence and severity of S. sclerotiorum in soybean plants grown in Arapoti, PR, Brazil, as a function of different plant populations, row spacing, and microclimate. The experiment was conducted in a naturally infested area. The experimental design adopted was a randomized block in a factorial combination with 4 row spacing (0.35, 0.45, 0.60, 0.75 m) and 4 plant populations (150, 200, 250; 300 thousand plants per hectare), totaling 16 treatments and 4 replications. Throughout the current study we performed 4 assessments of incidence and severity. Local climatic conditions were favorable for the incidence and severity of the pathogen. Mean air temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and leaf wetness duration, monitored during all experimental period, favored the development of the pathogen in the experimental field. Yield and 100 seed weight did not show fluctuations as a function of variations on the incidence and severity of white mold in soybean crop fields. Nevertheless, crop yield was higher under a reduced spacing, whereas the 100 seed weight showed the highest values under the lowest plant population treatment. © 2015, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia.
Preliminary study of using otoliths of Cynoscion acoupa upon the process of bone regeneration in rats [Estudo preliminar da utilização de otólitos de Cynoscion acoupa sobre o processo de neoformação óssea em ratos]
Valido D.P.,Odontologa |
Valido D.P.,Tiradentes University |
Bastos T.S.,Academica de Biomedicina |
De Albuquerque-Junior R.L.C.,Odontologa |
And 8 more authors.
Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial | Year: 2010
Introduction; Otoliths are calcareous concrescences present in the inner ear of fishes. Since they are rich in minerals considered essential to the bone mineralization process on a protein matrix (otolin), it has been suggested that otoliths may work as biominerals. Objective; The objective in this study was to analyze the regeneration capacity of bone defects treated with sterile gelatinous otolith preparation. Material and method; The experiment was performed with 20 Wistar rats randomized into two groups, in which a bone defect was inflicted in the tibia. In group 1 (experimental), bone cavities were filled with otoliths. In group 2 (control), bone cavities did not receive any additional treatment. The animals were sacrificed 14 days after surgical procedures. The tibias were removed, fixed in formalin at 10%, decalcified in nitric acid at 5% and histologically processed. Before sacrifice, blood samples were collected to evaluate serum dosage of calcium (Ca2+) and alkaline phosphatase (Alkp). Results; Histological sections revealed that the newly formed trabecular bone was denser and the periosteal reabsorptive activity was less conspicuous in the experimental group. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the area of bone formation between G1 (1.9 ± 0.3 mm2) and G2 (1.5 ± 0.4 mm2) (p = 0.0617). Biochemical (Ca2+ and Alkp) parameters were within normal range. Discussion/conclusion: These data suggest that otoliths may be an adjuvant to the dynamics of bone regeneration.
De Sousa V.A.,Embrapa Florestas |
Schemberg E.A.,Biologo |
Aguiar A.V.,Embrapa Florestas
Scientia Forestalis/Forest Sciences | Year: 2010
Syagrus romanzoffiana (jerivá) is a native palm species from Brazil with potential as ornamental, for apicultural and for the maintenance of the wild fauna, because it produces nutritious and abundant fruits. As a consequence of the indiscriminate native forests exploitation and due to its ecological importance in the natural environment, measures related to its conservation are needed. Pollen storage can play an important tool not only for ex situ conservation but also for tree breeding programs. The knowledge to evaluate its pollen viability is lacking. The present work aimed at identifying adequate culture media for jerivá pollen germination, taking into consideration different nutrient concentration (B, Ca, Mg and K) within the Brewbaker and Kwack medium modified for Ca, B, sucrose (100 g.L-1) and agar (3 g.L-1 ). Germination percentages (%) were submitted to variance analysis and the average compared by the Tukey test at 1 % level. According to this study, nutrient addition did not increase significantly in vitro germination. Therefore the medium composed only by sucrose and agar is indicated to evaluate Syagrus romanzoffiana pollen viability.
Lau M.C.,Biologa |
De Sousa Abessa D.M.,Biologo |
Toppa R.H.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Mundo da Saude | Year: 2011
This work analyzes the interactions between the community of Japuí Quarter, in the city of São Vicente (SP), and Xixová-Japuí (PEXJ) State Park. For doing this, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to inhabitants of the quarter and actors related to the Park, including its manager at the time, approaching aspects on environmental information, interaction with the UC (Unit of Conservation) territory, knowledge and availability of information on the Park. The results showed a low middle class population with low degree of instruction in general. The relationship of the community with PEXJ management was almost nonexistent, something which may result from the fact the population are not considered by the UC. One also proved the low knowledge and interest on the Park by inhabitants, as well as the failure of the administration, until that moment, in inserting the community in the unit's discussion and management. Such situation allowed the establishment of a conflicting relationship between the PEXJ and members of the community, leading to a situation where management has not established participative actions.