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Gidy, France

Biologie Servier

Gidy, France
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Rogue A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Rogue A.,University of Rennes 1 | Lambert C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lambert C.,University of Rennes 1 | And 4 more authors.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition | Year: 2012

Interindividual variations in functions other than drug metabolism activity, remain poorly elucidated in human liver. In the present study, the whole transcriptome of several human hepatocyte populations and the differentiated human HepaRG cell line have been analyzed and compared, using oligonucleotide pangenomic microarrays. We show that, although the variation in the percentages of expressed genes did not exceed 14% among the primary human hepatocyte populations, huge interindividual differences in the transcript levels of many genes were observed. These genes were related to various functions; in addition to drug metabolism, they mainly concerned carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. HepaRG cells expressed from 81 to 92% of the genes active in human hepatocytes and, in addition, a specific gene subset mainly related to their transformed status, some chromosomal abnormalities, and the presence of primitive biliary epithelial cells. Of interest, a relationship was evidenced between abnormal basal expression levels of some target genes and their corresponding previously reported fold changes in one of four human hepatocyte populations treated with the hepatotoxic drug troglitazone and not with other nonhepatotoxic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists (PLoS One 6:e18816, 2011). Taken together, our results support the view that HepaRG cells express most of the genes active in primary human hepatocytes and show that expression of most human hepatic genes can quantitatively greatly vary among individuals, thereby contributing to explain the huge interindividual variability in susceptibility to drugs and other environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Rogue A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rogue A.,University of Rennes 1 | Renaud M.P.,Biologie Servier | Claude N.,Institute Of Recherches Servier | And 3 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Species-differential toxic effects have been described with PPARα and PPARγ agonists between rodent and human liver. PPARα agonists (fibrates) are potent hypocholesterolemic agents in humans while they induce peroxisome proliferation and tumors in rodent liver. By contrast, PPARα agonists (glitazones) and even dual PPARα/γ agonists (glitazars) have caused idiosyncratic hepatic and nonhepatic toxicities in human without evidence of any damage in rodent during preclinical studies. The mechanisms involved in such differences remain largely unknown. Several studies have identified the major target genes of PPARα agonists in rodent liver while no comprehensive analysis has been performed on gene expression changes induced by PPARγ and dual PPARα/γ agonists. Here, we investigated transcriptomes of rat hepatocytes after 24. h treatment with two PPARγ (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) and two PPARα/γ (muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) agonists. Although, hierarchical clustering revealed a gene expression profile characteristic of each PPAR agonist class, only a limited number of genes was specifically deregulated by glitazars. Functional analyses showed that many genes known as PPARα targets were also modulated by both PPARγ and PPARα/γ agonists and quantitative differences in gene expression profiles were observed between these two classes. Moreover, most major genes modulated in rat hepatocytes were also found to be deregulated in rat liver after tesaglitazar treatment. Taken altogether, these results support the conclusion that differential toxic effects of PPARα and PPARγ agonists in rodent liver do not result from transcriptional deregulation of major PPAR target genes but rather from qualitative and/or quantitative differential responses of a small subset of genes. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Rogue A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rogue A.,University of Rennes 1 | Antherieu S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Antherieu S.,University of Rennes 1 | And 8 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Sutter A.,Bayer AG | Amberg A.,Sanofi S.A. | Boyer S.,Astrazeneca | Brigo A.,Hoffmann-La Roche | And 14 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Genotoxicity hazard identification is part of the impurity qualification process for drug substances and products, the first step of which being the prediction of their potential DNA reactivity using in silico (quantitative) structure-activity relationship (Q)SAR models/systems. This white paper provides information relevant to the development of the draft harmonized tripartite guideline ICH M7 on potentially DNA-reactive/mutagenic impurities in pharmaceuticals and their application in practice. It explains relevant (Q)SAR methodologies as well as the added value of expert knowledge. Moreover, the predictive value of the different methodologies analyzed in two surveys conveyed in the US and European pharmaceutical industry is compared: most pharmaceutical companies used a rule-based expert system as their primary methodology, yielding negative predictivity values of ≥78% in all participating companies. A further increase (>90%) was often achieved by an additional expert review and/or a second QSAR methodology. Also in the latter case, an expert review was mandatory, especially when conflicting results were obtained. Based on the available data, we concluded that a rule-based expert system complemented by either expert knowledge or a second (Q)SAR model is appropriate. A maximal transparency of the assessment process (e.g. methods, results, arguments of weight-of-evidence approach) achieved by e.g. data sharing initiatives and the use of standards for reporting will enable regulators to fully understand the results of the analysis. Overall, the procedures presented here for structure-based assessment are considered appropriate for regulatory submissions in the scope of ICH M7. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Sison-Young R.L.C.,Center for Drug Safety Science | Mitsa D.,Center for Drug Safety Science | Jenkins R.E.,Center for Drug Safety Science | Mottram D.,Center for Drug Safety Science | And 11 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2015

In vitro preclinical models for the assessment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are usually based on cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes (cPHH) or human hepatic tumor-derived cell lines; however, it is unclear how well such cell models reflect the normal function of liver cells. The physiological, pharmacological, and toxicological phenotyping of available cell-based systems is necessary in order to decide the testing purpose for which they are fit. We have therefore undertaken a global proteomic analysis of 3 human-derived hepatic cell lines (HepG2, Upcyte, and HepaRG) in comparison with cPHH with a focus on drug metabolizing enzymes and transport proteins (DMETs), as well as Nrf2-regulated proteins. In total, 4946 proteins were identified, of which 2722 proteins were common across all cell models, including 128 DMETs. Approximately 90% reduction in expression of cytochromes P450 was observed in HepG2 and Upcyte cells, and approximately 60% in HepaRG cells relative to cPHH. Drug transporter expression was also lower compared with cPHH with the exception of MRP3 and P-gp (MDR1) which appeared to be significantly expressed in HepaRG cells. In contrast, a high proportion of Nrf2-regulated proteins were more highly expressed in the cell lines compared with cPHH. The proteomic database derived here will provide a rational basis for the context-specific selection of the most appropriate 'hepatocyte-like' cell for the evaluation of particular cellular functions associated with DILI and, at the same time, assist in the construction of a testing paradigm which takes into account the in vivo disposition of a new drug. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved.

Rogue A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rogue A.,University of Rennes 1 | Lambert C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lambert C.,University of Rennes 1 | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Several glitazones (PPARγ agonists) and glitazars (dual PPARα/γ agonists) have been developed to treat hyperglycemia and, simultaneously, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, respectively. However, most have caused idiosyncratic hepatic or extrahepatic toxicities through mechanisms that remain largely unknown. Since the liver plays a key role in lipid metabolism, we analyzed changes in gene expression profiles induced by these two types of PPAR agonists in human hepatocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings: Primary human hepatocytes and the well-differentiated human hepatoma HepaRG cells were exposed to different concentrations of two PPARγ (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) and two PPARα/γ (muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) agonists for 24 h and their transcriptomes were analyzed using human pangenomic Agilent microarrays. Principal Component Analysis, hierarchical clustering and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® revealed large inter-individual variability in the response of the human hepatocyte populations to the different compounds. Many genes involved in lipid, carbohydrate, xenobiotic and cholesterol metabolism, as well as inflammation and immunity, were regulated by both PPARγ and PPARα/γ agonists in at least a number of human hepatocyte populations and/or HepaRG cells. Only a few genes were selectively deregulated by glitazars when compared to glitazones, indicating that PPARγ and PPARα/γ agonists share most of their target genes. Moreover, some target genes thought to be regulated only in mouse or to be expressed in Kupffer cells were also found to be responsive in human hepatocytes and HepaRG cells. Conclusions/Significance: This first comprehensive analysis of gene regulation by PPARγ and PPARα/γ agonists favor the conclusion that glitazones and glitazars share most of their target genes and induce large differential changes in gene profiles in human hepatocytes depending on hepatocyte donor, the compound class and/or individual compound, thereby supporting the occurrence of idiosyncratic toxicity in some patients. © 2011 Rogue et al.

Spire C.,Biologie Servier | Rogue A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rogue A.,University of Rennes 1 | Brun M.,Institute Of Recherches Servier | And 3 more authors.
PPAR Research | Year: 2010

Thiazolidinediones are a class of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists that reduce insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Although no detectable hepatic toxicity has been evidenced in animal studies during preclinical trials, these molecules have nevertheless induced hepatic adverse effects in some treated patients. The mechanism(s) of hepatotoxicity remains equivocal. Several studies have been conducted using PCR analysis and microarray technology to identify possible target genes and here we review the data obtained from various in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Although PPARγ is expressed at a much lower level in liver than in adipose tissue, PPARγ agonists exert various PPARγ-dependent effects in liver in addition to PPARγ-independent effects. Differences in effects are dependent on the choice of agonist and experimental conditions in rodent animal studies and in rodent and human liver cell cultures. These effects are much more pronounced in obese and diabetic liver. Moreover, our own recent studies have shown major interindividual variability in the response of primary human hepatocyte populations to troglitazone treatment, supporting the occurrence of hepatotoxicity in only some individuals. Copyright © 2010 Alexandra Rogue et al.

Josse R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Josse R.,University of Rennes 1 | Rogue A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rogue A.,University of Rennes 1 | And 3 more authors.
Mutagenesis | Year: 2012

The in vitro micronucleus test is considered as an attractive tool for genotoxicity testing of chemicals because of its simplicity of scoring and wide applicability in different cell types. However, most of the cells currently in use are devoid of the enzyme equipment required for activation of promutagens in the genotoxic metabolites. We postulated that the human HepaRG cell line, which can express xenobiotic metabolising enzymes at levels close to those found in primary human hepatocytes and has retained the indefinite growth capacity of transformed cells, could represent a more suitable model for genotoxicity testing of chemicals requiring metabolic activation. Based on the recommendations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline TG 487 for testing of chemicals, HepaRG cell cultures containing >80% mature hepatocytes were treated in situ with various chemicals for 24 h followed by a 3-day mitogenic stimulation with epidermal growth factor without cytokinesis block. In such culture conditions, HepaRG cells underwent >1.5 cell cycle per cell during the mitogenic stimulation. While non-genotoxic compounds (mannitol and staurosporine) did not increase the rate of micronucleated mononucleated cells, all aneugens (colchicine, nocodazole and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) as well as the direct acting clastogen methyl methanesulfonate and clastogens requiring metabolic activation (aflatoxin B1, benzo(a)pyrene and 2-nitrofluorene) induced a statistically significant concentration-related increase in the number of mono-micronucleated cells. The micronucleus test was also performed after 7-day repeat exposure of HepaRG cells to the chemicals. Noticeably, a time-dependent effect was obtained with the three clastogens requiring metabolic activation. In conclusion, our results obtained with HepaRG hepatocytes exposed to various genotoxic compounds requiring or not bioactivation, compared favorably with those reported in various other cell types. They support the view that metabolically competent HepaRG cells have unique potential benefits for testing genotoxic compounds using the in vitro micronucleus assay. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved.

Platel A.,Biologie Servier | Platel A.,University of Lille Nord de France | Gervais V.,Biologie Servier | Sajot N.,Biologie Servier | And 3 more authors.
Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis | Year: 2010

During the last decade, there has been clear progress in using threshold in risk assessment but its acceptance by scientists is still under debate. Contrary to indirect DNA-damaging agents, DNA-reactive agents have been assumed to have a non-threshold mode of action, as they directly induce DNA lesions that potentially can be converted into mutations. However, in recent years there is a growing number of data establishing threshold doses even for these DNA-reactive compounds. Indeed, there are several defence and repair mechanisms that provide protection and that may be responsible for genotoxic thresholds. In this context, we recently showed that DNA-oxidizing agents exhibit a thresholded dose-response in vitro with respect to chromosomal alterations. We have hypothesized the involvement of different cellular responses whose nature and efficiency depend on the stress level. The aim of this study was to develop a more complete understanding of these underlying mechanisms. We investigated global gene expression profiles of human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells after exposure to potassium bromate and hydrogen peroxide (via glucose oxidase). Cells were treated for 1. h and mRNAs were isolated either immediately at the end of the treatment or after a 23-h recovery period. Our results showed that cells have developed elaborate cellular responses to oxidative stress in order to maintain genomic integrity. Many of altered genes were redox-sensitive transcription factors such as p53, NF-κB, AP-1 and Nrf2. Their downstream target genes and signalling pathways were subsequently activated leading mainly to the induction of antioxidant defenses, inflammation, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and cell death. Overall, our study allowed the identification of key events involved in the thresholded response observed after DNA-oxidizing agents exposure and shows the usefulness of the combination of standard in vitro genotoxicity assays with gene expression profiling technology to determine modes of action, particularly for critical risk assessment. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Platel A.,University of Lille Nord de France | Nesslany F.,University of Lille Nord de France | Gervais V.,Biologie Servier | Claude N.,Biologie Servier | Marzin D.,University of Lille Nord de France
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2011

Nowadays, there is clear progress in using the threshold concept in genetic toxicology, but its demonstration and acceptance in risk assessment is still under debate. Although it has been accepted for some non-DNA-reactive agents for which mechanisms of action were demonstrated, there is a growing weight of evidence to also support the existence of thresholded dose-responses for DNA-reactive agents. In this context, we have recently shown in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells, that DNA-oxidizing agents [potassium bromate, bleomycin and hydrogen peroxide (via glucose oxidase)] produced non-linear dose-responses in the in vitro micronucleus test, thus allowing the determination of No-Observed-Genotoxic-Effect-Levels (NOGELs). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to focus on the analysis of thresholded dose-response curves in order to further investigate the existence of NOGELs for these same directly DNA-damaging agents, by use of other genotoxicity endpoints. Mutation frequency was determined after a 1-h treatment in the thymidine kinase (TK) gene-mutation assay. Primary DNA damage, especially oxidative DNA damage, was also assessed after 1 h of treatment, followed - or not - by a 23-h recovery period, with the modified version of the comet assay (i.e. with the glycosylases Fpg and hOgg1). Overall, our analysis demonstrates that there is convincing evidence to support the existence of thresholded dose-responses for DNA-oxidizing agents. The determination of NOGELs depends on the genotoxic endpoint studied and consequently requires different genotoxicity assays performed concurrently. NOGELs could only be defined for the induction of chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations, i.e. for an effect-endpoint but not for primary DNA damage, i.e. for an exposure-endpoint. Further statistical analyses of these data are now required in order to draw conclusions on the exact level of the thresholds. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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