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North Bethesda, MD, United States

Treanor J.J.,University of Rochester | Sahly H.E.,Baylor College of Medicine | King J.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Graham I.,Washington University in St. Louis | And 4 more authors.

Background: Development of influenza vaccines that do not use embryonated eggs as the substrate for vaccine production is a high priority. We conducted this study to determine the protective efficacy a recombinant, baculovirus-expressed seasonal trivalent influenza virus hemagglutinin (rHA0) vaccine (FluBlok ®). Methods: Healthy adult subjects at 24 centers across the US were randomly assigned to receive a single injection of saline placebo (2304 subjects), or trivalent FluBlok containing 45 mcg of each rHA0 component (2344 subjects). Serum samples for assessment of immune responses by hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) were taken from a subset of subjects before and 28 days after immunization. Subjects were followed during the 2007-2008 influenza season and combined nasal and throat swabs for virus isolation were obtained from subjects reporting influenza-like illness. Results: Rates of local and systemic side effects were low, and the rates of systemic side effects were similar in the vaccine and placebo groups. HAI antibody responses were seen in 78%, 81%, and 52% of FluBlok recipients to the H1, H3, and B components, respectively. FluBlok was 44.6% (95% CI, 18.8%, 62.6%) effective in preventing culture-confirmed influenza meeting the CDC influenza-like illness case definition despite significant antigenic mismatch between the vaccine antigens and circulating viruses. Conclusions: Trivalent rHA0 vaccine was safe, immunogenic and effective in the prevention of culture confirmed influenza illness, including protection against drift variants. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Watson J.M.,Immune Targeting Systems | Francis J.N.,Immune Targeting Systems | Mesens S.,Clinical Research Unit | Faiman G.A.,Immune Targeting Systems | And 5 more authors.
Virology Journal

Background: Human challenge models using respiratory viruses such as influenza are increasingly utilised in the development of novel vaccines and anti-viral modalities and can provide preliminary evidence of protection before evaluation in field trials. We describe the results of a clinical study characterising an A/H1N1 influenza challenge virus in humans. Methods: The challenge agent, influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1), was manufactured under cGMP conditions and characterised in accordance with regulatory guidelines. A dose-ascending open-label clinical study was conducted in 29 healthy young adults screened sero-negative to the challenge strain. Subjects were intranasally inoculated with three increasing doses of virus and physician-reported signs, subjected-reported symptoms, viral shedding and immunological responses were monitored. Results: A dose-dependent increase in clinical signs and symptoms was observed with 75% of subjects developing laboratory-confirmed illness at the highest inoculum (3.5 × 106 TCID50). At the highest dose, physician or subjectreported signs of infection were classified as mild (all subjects), moderate (50%) and severe (16%) with peak symptoms recorded four days after infection. Clinical signs were correlated with nasal mucus weight (P <.001) and subject-reported symptoms (P 7lt;.001). Geometric mean peak viral shedding was log10 5.16 TCID50 and occurred three days after inoculation with a median duration of five days. The safety profile was such that physiological responses to viral infection were mainly restricted to the upper airways but were not of such severity to be of clinical concern. Conclusions: A highly characterised wild-type Influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1) virus manufactured for clinical use was shown to induce a good infectivity profile in human volunteers. This clinical challenge model can be used for evaluating potential efficacy of vaccines and anti-viral therapeutics. Trial registration: NCT02014870 © 2015 Watson et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Hurko O.,Biologics Consulting Group Inc. | Hurko O.,University of Dundee | Boudonck K.,Metabolon | Boudonck K.,Bayer CropScience | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Mice transgenic for production of excessive or mutant forms of beta-amyloid differ from patients with Alzheimer's disease in the degree of inflammation, oxidative damage, and alteration of intermediary metabolism, as well as the paucity or absence of neuronal atrophy and cognitive impairment. Previous observers have suggested that differences in inflammatory response reflect a discrepancy in the state of the locus coeruleus (LC), loss of which is an early change in Alzheimer's disease but which is preserved in the transgenic mice. In this paper, we extend these observations by examining the effects of the LC on markers of oxidative stress and intermediary metabolism. We compare four groups: wild-type or Tg2576 Aβ transgenic mice injected with DSP4 or vehicle. Of greatest interest were metabolites different between ablated and intact transgenics, but not between ablated and intact wild-type animals. The Tg2576-DSP4 mice were distinguished from the other three groups by oxidative stress and altered energy metabolism. These observations provide further support for the hypothesis that Tg2576 A transgenic mice with this ablation may be a more congruent model of Alzheimer's disease than are transgenics with an intact LC. Copyright © 2010 Orest Hurko et al. Source

Clark J.A.,United Biosource Corporation | Humphries J.E.,Biologics Consulting Group Inc. | Crean S.,United Biosource Corporation | Reynolds M.W.,United Biosource Corporation
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety

Purpose: To review topical bovine thrombin spontaneous adverse event (AE) reports that were forwarded to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) between January 1986 and December 2006. Methods: Forty-one spontaneous AE reports were summarized for reported AE profile and chronological reporting patterns. Each AE report was adjudicated by a hematologist for the topical bovine thrombin product that was given and the AE(s) that were reported. AEs were grouped as allergic, coagulopathy/bleeding, and all other AEs combined. Grouped AE serial analyses were carried out using successive 3-year time increments between 1986 (the year an AE report was first noted for a bovine thrombin product) and 2006 (the first full year that was available at the time of initiation of the data summary). Main outcome measures: The primary outcome measures were every 3-year trend lines for all-AE reports, all reporters, and topical bovine thrombin brand mentions for 2 AE groups of interest (allergic events and coagulopathy/bleeding events). Results: The all-AE spontaneous reporter trend showed a downward appearance for AE reporting activity that started in 1995-1998 and continued through 2004-2006. The all-AE reports trend showed two potential safety signals that could be identified serially: (1) a prominent 1989-1991 peak that was attributable to allergic events (in particular, anaphylaxis), and (2) a small 1995-2000 broad peak that was attributable in part to coagulopathy/bleeding events. Allergic events were predominantly reported with products approved prior to 1995, were not temporally associated with prior medical literature case reports, and continued to be forwarded to the FDA at low levels up to the end of this study in 2006. Coagulopathy/bleeding events were reported only with products approved prior to 1995, were temporally associated with medical literature case reports, and were not forwarded to the FDA after 2000. Conclusions: Overall, spontaneous AE reporting for topical bovine thrombin occurs at very low levels, and appears to have been decreasing since 1995. The serial reporting patterns for topical bovine thrombin are best explained as a strong safety signal for allergic events with ongoing, low level reporting, and a weak safety signal for coagulopathy/bleeding events that ceased on or before 2000. Although this descriptive trend analysis cannot measure associations or causation, the coagulopathy/bleeding signal may have been prompted by multiple, antecedent published case reports. The subsequent diminishment of signal attributed to thrombin likewise may coincide with lack of such reporting in larger follow-up clinical trials or, alternatively, in the introduction and growing market share of thrombin brands of greater purity. Currently marketed topical bovine thrombin formulations are rarely volunteered as possible causes of adverse events. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Fellows P.,DynPort Vaccine Company | Adamovicz J.,U.S. Army | Adamovicz J.,Midwest Research Institute | Hartings J.,Biaera Technologies LLC | And 13 more authors.

Passive transfer models were developed to evaluate the ability of antibodies generated in cynomolgus macaques and humans vaccinated with a recombinant plague vaccine (rF1V) to protect naïve Swiss Webster mice against pneumonic plague. Development of the passive transfer model is intended to support clinical and nonclinical development of the rF1V vaccine. To evaluate protection, unfractionated serum collected from rF1V vaccinated cynomolgus macaques and human volunteers with known antibody titers to rF1, rV and rF1V was transferred into naïve Swiss Webster mice via the intraperitoneal route. Results of these studies demonstrated that passive immunization protected mice from challenge or extended mean survival time and that the passive transfer assay can be used to evaluate the functional role of antibodies induced by rF1V vaccination in protection against aerosol exposure. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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