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Shimojima M.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Madoka Y.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Fujiwara R.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Murakawa M.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | And 7 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Inorganic phosphate (Pi) depletion is a serious problem for plant growth. Membrane lipid remodeling is a defense mechanism that plants use to survive Pi-depleted conditions. During Pi starvation, phospholipids are degraded to supply Pi for other essential biological processes, whereas galactolipid synthesis in plastids is up-regulated via the transcriptional activation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 3 (MGD3). Thus, the produced galactolipids are transferred to extraplastidial membranes to substitute for phospholipids. We found that, Pi starvation induced oil accumulation in the vegetative tissues of various seed plants without activating the transcription of enzymes involved in the later steps of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Moreover, the Arabidopsis starchless phosphoglucomutase mutant, pgm-1, accumulated higher TAG levels than did wild-type plants under Pi-depleted conditions. We generated transgenic plants that expressed a key gene involved in TAG synthesis using the Pi deficiency-responsive MGD3 promoter in wild-type and pgm-1 backgrounds. During Pi starvation, the transgenic plants accumulated higher TAG amounts compared with the non-transgenic plants, suggesting that the Pi deficiency-responsive promoter of galactolipid synthase in plastids may be useful for producing transgenic plants that accumulate more oil under Pi-depleted conditions. © 2015 Shimojima, Madoka, Fujiwara, Murakawa, Yoshitake, Ikeda, Koizumi, Endo, Ozaki and Ohta. Source

Minegishi Y.,Biological Science Laboratories | Haramizu S.,Biological Science Laboratories | Misawa K.,Biological Science Laboratories | Shimotoyodome A.,Biological Science Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) plays an important role in regulating physiological processes such as immunity and inflammation. In addition to this primary role, NF-κB interacts physically with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors regulating lipid metabolism-related gene expression and inhibits their transcriptional activity. Therefore, inhibition of NF-κB may promote fatty acid utilization, which could ameliorate obesity and improve endurance capacity. To test this hypothesis, we attempted to elucidate the energy metabolic status of mice lacking the p50 subunit of NF-κB (p50 KO mice) from the tissue to whole body level. p50 KO mice showed a significantly lower respiratory quotient throughout the day than did wild-type (WT) mice; this decrease was associated with increased fatty acid oxidation activity in liver and gastrocnemius muscle of p50 KO mice. p50 KO mice that were fed a high-fat diet were also resistant to fat accumulation and adipose tissue inflammation. Furthermore, p50 KO mice showed a significantly longer maximum running time compared with WT mice, with a lower respiratory exchange ratio during exercise as well as higher residual muscle glycogen content and lower blood lactate levels after exercise. These results suggest that p50 deletion facilitates fatty acid catabolism, leading to an anti-obesity and high-endurance phenotype of mice and supporting the idea that NF-κB is an important regulator of energy metabolism. © 2015 The American Physiological Society. Source

Murase T.,Biological Science Laboratories | Misawa K.,Biological Science Laboratories | Minegishi Y.,Biological Science Laboratories | Aoki M.,Biological Science Laboratories | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011

The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally, and obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of coffee polyphenols (CPP), which are abundant in coffee and consumed worldwide, on diet-induced body fat accumulation. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control diet, a high-fat diet, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 to 1.0% CPP for 2-15 wk. Supplementation with CPP significantly reduced body weight gain, abdominal and liver fat accumulation, and infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissues. Energy expenditure evaluated by indirect calorimetry was significantly increased in CPP-fed mice. The mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and -2, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 in the liver were significantly lower in CPP-fed mice than in high-fat control mice. Similarly, CPP suppressed the expression of these molecules in Hepa 1-6 cells, concomitant with an increase in microRNA-122. Structure-activity relationship studies of nine quinic acid derivatives isolated from CPP in Hepa 1-6 cells suggested that mono- or di-caffeoyl quinic acids (CQA) are active substances in the beneficial effects of CPP. Furthermore, CPP and 5-CQA decreased the nuclear active form of SREBP-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, and cellular malonyl-CoA levels. These findings indicate that CPP enhances energy metabolism and reduces lipogenesis by downregulating SREBP-1c and related molecules, which leads to the suppression of body fat accumulation. Copyright © 2011 the American Physiological Society. Source

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