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Saint Cloud, MN, United States

Wreh E.,Biological science
11AIChE - 2011 AIChE Spring Meeting and 7th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

Cattails are a potential source of biomass for the production of cellulosic ethanol. The efficiency of sulfuric acid and ammonia pretreatment methods in preparing cattail biomass for ethanol production were compared. Dried, powdered cattail leaves were pretreated either by autoclaving them with 2% sulfuric acid for 1 hr or by incubating them overnight at 40°C in 15% aqueous ammonia. Samples of the dried, pretreated solid were treated with cellulase and glucosidase for 48 hr. To compare the efficiency of the pretreatment methods, glucose liberated in the samples was measured using a glucose oxidase assay. Overall, 27.8% of the starting biomass was recovered as glucose with ammonia pretreatment compared to 11.7% for sulfuric acid pretreatment. In addition, 22.3% of the starting biomass was recovered as glucose when no pretreatment was used. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2011 AIChE Spring Meeting & 7th Global Congress on Process Safety (Chicago, IL 3/13-17/2011).

Wyatt H.J.,Biological science
Vision Research | Year: 2010

Video-based devices for measuring gaze direction are widespread. However, there is a built-in imprecision in such devices in the event that pupil diameter changes during the experiments. Data are presented to demonstrate this effect. The possibility of correcting eye-position records for the imprecision is discussed and preliminary examples of such correction are presented. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Brennan D.,BCC | Gal S.,Biological science | Jones W.,Chemistry | McGrann R.,Mechanical Engineering
Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE | Year: 2010

This work-in-progress paper describes the math and engineering module of the Go Green Institute at Binghamton University. This institute is a 10-day summer program for middle school students and was developed in an effort to increase the level of understanding of the scientific aspects of environmental sustainability and to promote interest in science, technology, engineering, and math careers. The Go Green Institute is comprised of three course modules; (1) Biology/Life Science, (2) Chemistry/Physical Science, and (3) Math/Engineering, all with a focus on climate change and sustainability issues. Along with these course modules the institute also included field trips, guest speakers, and team projects that were all related to the institute's goals. The focus of this paper is on the math and engineering module of the institute. The curriculum of this module will be presented and its effectiveness will be discussed. In addition, a plan for an assessment of the effect of the curriculum on the student's interest in the field of engineering will be presented. © 2010 IEEE.

Rios A.C.,University of California at San Diego | French G.,Biological science
Journal of Chemical Education | Year: 2011

Chemical education occurs in settings other than just the chemistry classroom. High school biology courses are frequently where students are introduced to organic molecules and their importance to cellular chemistry. However, structural representations are often intimidating because students have not been introduced to the language. As part of a National Science Foundation (NSF) GK-12 program, we designed and implemented a classroom activity to help students become familiar with the symbolic nature of bond-line structures and to gain experience in recognizing distinctive features among classes of organic molecules.Odorant molecules associated with food are engaging vehicles for students to make structural observations and practice pattern recognition for the discovery of functional groups; they also learn the rules for unwritten carbon and hydrogen atoms. Introducing the molecular nature of odors and the associated smells provides a tangible chemistry-biology connection that stimulates students' interests in organic chemistry while learning the structural language used by practicing chemists. © 2011 American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.

Hewitt G.M.,Biological science
Genetica | Year: 2011

The older history of hybrid zones is explored through consideration of recent advances in climatology, paleontology and phylogeography in the Late Cenozoic, particularly the Quaternary Period with its major climatic cycles. The fossil record shows that these ice ages and their nested millennial oscillations caused substantial changes in species distributions and with genetic evidence allows deduction of refugia and colonization routes in arctic, temperate, desert and tropical regions. The age of divergence between hybridizing lineages varies from the Late Pleistocene to the Late Miocene, implying much range change and varying selection on sister lineages. Hybridizing lineages in the Tropical and Temperate regions range in age from young to old, but those studied in the Arctic are no more than a few ice ages old and their refugial roots are not clear. Mid to low latitude regions often show parapatric patchworks of lineages and multiple refugia stable through many climatic oscillations. Particular hybrid zones may have formed more than once; while some expansions were not the same, producing reticulation and introgression in previous glacial cycles. Hybrid-zone roots are complex and deep, and considerations of their complexity can reveal evolutionary pathways of species. They are indeed windows on evolution. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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