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Fujita Y.,University of Ryukyus | Fujita Y.,Marine Learning Center | Obuchi M.,Biological Institute on Kuroshio
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

A new species of the genus Comanthus A.H. Clark, 1908, is described on the basis of specimens collected from Kume Island and Okinawa Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Comanthus kumi n. sp. is distinguished from all ten congeners by having extremely elongate arms exceeding 300 mm in length and the colouration in life. The new species concealed its whole body in a crevice or small hole on coral reefs during the day and protruded only several elongate arms on the reef surface at night. This habit suggests that the new species is nocturnal. Copyright © 2012. Magnolia Press. Source

Imahara Y.,Biological Institute on Kuroshio
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

Two new species of paralcyoniid octocorals are described from Japan. One of them, Ceeceenus retractus n. sp., is the fifth species of the genus, and the other, Nanalcyon sagamiense n. gen. n. sp., is proposed as a new genus. Nanalcyon is similar to the Mediterranean and Atlantic genera Maasella Poche, 1914 and Paralcyonium Milne Edwards and Haime, 1850, but the new genus clearly differs from these in having independent colonies not joined by stolons. The ultrastructure of the sclerites is compared among the new genus, Ceeceenus and Paralcyonium by means of SEM. All three genera display the same three main types of sclerites, flat platelets, rods and spindles, the ultrastructure of all consisting of non-branching fibrous crystals. In addition to these, two genera, Ceeceenus and Paralcyonium, have flat oval platelets with the ultrastructure showing branching dendritic crystals, lacking in Nanalcyon. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

Yamazaki A.,Hokkaido University | Yamazaki A.,KIKAI Institute for Coral Reef science | Yamazaki A.,University of Tokyo | Watanabe T.,Hokkaido University | And 5 more authors.
Paleoceanography | Year: 2016

The Kuroshio Current is a major global ocean current that drives the physical ocean-atmosphere system with heat transport from tropical to temperate zones in the North Pacific Ocean. We reconstructed the variability of the Kuroshio transport over the past 150 years using coral skeletal nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15Ncoral). A 150 year δ15Ncoral record (1859–2008 A.D.) is 4 times the length of the observational record (1971 to present) and could provide a direct comparison with global climate change, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index and El-Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), through recent global warming. Coral cores from Porites were collected from Tatsukushi Bay in 2008 on the Pacific coast of Japan, which is located on the northern front of the Kuroshio Current. δ15Ncoral was used as a proxy to record the δ15N of nitrate (δ15Nnitrate) controlled by the upwelling of subtropical subsurface water (δ15Nnitrate; ~ +2 − +3‰), and δ15Ncoral was negatively correlated with observations of the Kuroshio transport (R = −0.69, P < 0.001) and the 2 year lagged PDO index (R = −0.63, P < 0.005) from 1972 to 2007. The 150 year record of δ15Ncoral suggested that the Kuroshio transport varied with ~25 year cycle, and the amplitude became more stable, and the volume was intensified through the twentieth century. The Kuroshio transport was intensified by the La Niña state in the early 1900s and by the El Niño-PDO state after the 1920s. Our results suggested that the Kuroshio transport was influenced by the combined climate modes of ENSO and PDO during the last century. © 2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Obuchi M.,Biological Institute on Kuroshio | Obuchi M.,University of Ryukyus | Omori A.,University of Tokyo
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

A new genus and new species of antedonid comatulid is described from southern Japan. Belonometra n. gen. has a unique appearance with ten long arms, numerous cirri, and remarkably long and crowded pinnules. The new genus shares some characters with subfamily Heliometrinae. However, the comparative length of pinnules, which is a diagnostic character to determine subfamily Antedonidae, is different. The subfamily into which the new genus should be placed is unclear. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press. Source

Straehler-Pohl I.,Evolutionary Biology and Life Cycle Research | Toshino S.,Kitasato University | Toshino S.,Biological Institute on Kuroshio
Plankton and Benthos Research | Year: 2016

The name Carybdea morandinii Straehler-Pohl & Jarms, 2011 was applied to unknown cubopolyps found on dead coral rock at the Hagenbeck Zoo, Hamburg, Germany, during 1999, and a description was given of its early life history. Although included in Carybdeidae Lesson, 1843, its familial affinities remained uncertain. In 2006, a population of unidentified cubopolyps was discovered on the walls of a saltwater tank at the Umikirara Aquarium, Nagasaki, Japan. In addition, an immature cubomedusa and polyps were collected at Ginowan and Ishigaki, Okinawa, Japan, in 2002 and 2012. Genetic analysis established that these polyps and the medusa belonged to the same species as the polyps found in Nagasaki. Comparisons of the anatomy and asexual propagation methods of Japanese polyps, and their newly detached medusae, with early life stages of cubozoans cultured in Germany, revealed that the Japanese populations were likely conspecific with Carybdea morandinii. Subsequent genetic analysis confirmed this identification. Morphology of Japanese medusae revealed that they were referable to the family Alatinidae Gershwin, 2005, and within that family to the genus Alatina Gershwin, 2005, rather than to the family Carybdeidae. © The Plankton Society of Japan. Source

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