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Caniceiro B.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Latorre A.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Fukumasu H.,University of Sao Paulo | Sanches D.S.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Immunotoxicology | Year: 2015

Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern), one of the most important toxic plants in the world, contains the toxic norsequiterpene ptaquiloside that induces cancers in humans and farm animals. Previous studies in the laboratory demonstrated immunotoxic effects produced by ptaquiloside, which are characterized by suppression of natural killer (NK) cell activity (i.e. cytotoxicity and interferon [IFN]-γ production). However, it is unknown whether these immunosuppressive effects could contribute to carcinogenesis in situ in general because of the important function of NK cells in innate killing of tumor cells. This study assessed the impact of P. aquilinum-induced immunosuppression on urethane-induced lung cancer in C57BL/6 mice. Adult mice were treated with an extract of P. aquilinum (30 g/kg/day) by gavage once daily for 14 days, followed by gavage (5 days/week) during an 11-week period that was accompanied by treatment with urethane (1 g/kg) via once-weekly intraperitoneal injection; 20 weeks after the end of the treatment period, all lungs were evaluated. The results indicated there was a significant increase in lung nodule number as well as in multiplicity of lesions in mice treated with both P. aquilinum and urethane (PU group) compared to values in mice treated only with the urethane (U group). In addition, histologic evaluation revealed a 76% increase in the rate of lung adenomas and a 41% increase in rate of bronchiolization of alveoli in the mice from the PU group compared to levels seen in mice within the U group. Taken together, the results here show for the first time that immunosuppressive effects of P. aquilinum could increase the risk of cancer formation in exposed hosts. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

dos Santos R.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Blume E.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Muniz M.F.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Heckler L.I.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 4 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2014

Cultivated grapevine (Vitis labrusca and V. vinifera) is of considerable economic importance to the Brazilian fruit industry for both fresh market consumption and for the production of wines, sparkling beverages, and juices. Black foot disease is caused by fungi of the genera Ilyonectria P. Chaverri & C. Salgado (anamorph: Cylindrocarpon Wollew.), Campylocarpon Halleen, Schroers & Crous, and Cylindrocladiella Boesew. In 2012, 4- to 40-year-old grapevines (Vitis spp.) showing reduced vigor, vascular lesions, necrotic root lesions, delayed budding, vine decline, and death were collected from seven locations at Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Fungal isolations were made from root fragments and crown lesions (at least 2 cm above the bottom) on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium added with 0.5 g L-1 streptomycin sulfate. Eight isolates were obtained and identified on the basis of morphological features and multi-gene analysis (rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin, and histone H3) as Ilyonectria macrodidyma (Halleen, Schroers & Crous) P. Chaverri & C. Salgado. One representative isolate (Cy5UFSM) was used for more detailed morphological and molecular characterization, and pathogenicity confirmation. When incubated in the dark at 20°C for 7 to 10 days, colonies of felty straw-colored mycelium (3) 4.79 cm diameter on average were observed. No sporodochia or other fruiting bodies were produced on carnation leaf agar (CLA) medium after 30 days. Microconidia that were produced after 5 weeks on spezieller nährstoffarmer agar (SNA) medium with addition of two pieces of 1 cm2 filter paper showed ovoid and ellipsoid shape (6.4 × 3.6 μm) and one-septate macroconidia (17.3 × 4.1 μm). To confirm the species, primer pairs ITS1 and ITS4 (4); Bt2a and Bt2b; and H3-1a and H3-1b (2) were used to amplify the ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2, part of the β-tubulin and histone H3 genes, respectively. Sequences of these three regions showed 99, 100, and 100% of homology with I. macrodidyma, respectively. To confirm pathogenicity, 4-month-old rooted cuttings of V. labrusca cv. Bordô were inoculated by immersing them in a conidial suspension of the isolate (106 conidia ml-1) for 60 min (1). Thirty days later, inoculation was performed again by drenching the crown with 40 ml of 106 conidia ml-1 suspension to ensure infection of the roots. In the control treatment, plants were inoculated with sterile distilled water. Plants inoculated with I. macrodidyma showed necrosis of the leaf ribs, reduction in root mass, root and crown necrosis, browning of vessels, drying of shoots, and death. I. macrodidyma was re-isolated from the crown necrosis and vascular lesions, confirming Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of I. macrodidyma associated with black foot disease of grapevine in Brazil, which poses considerable threat to the industry unless management options are realized. © The American Phytopathological Society.

Elias F.,University of Sao Paulo | Latorre A.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Pipole F.,University of Sao Paulo | Haraguchi M.,Biological Institute of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

This study is the first in the literature to focus attention on the possible immunotoxic effect of integerrimine N-oxide content in the butanolic residue (BR) of Senecio brasiliensis, a poisonous hepatotoxic plant that contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). PAs have been reported as a pasture and food contaminant and as herbal medicine used worldwide and are responsible for poisoning events in livestock and human beings. After the plant extraction, BR extracted from Senecio brasiliensis was found to contain approximately 70% integerrimine N-oxide by elemental and spectral analyses ( 1H and 13C NMR), which was administered to adult male Wistar Hannover rats at doses of 3, 6 and 9mg/kg for 28days. Body weight gain, food consumption, lymphoid organs, neutrophil analysis, humoural immune response, cellular immune response and lymphocyte analysis were evaluated. Our study showed that integerrimine N-oxide could promote an impairment in the body weight gain, interference with blood cell counts and a reducing T cell proliferative activity in rats; however, no differences in the neutrophil activities, lymphocytes phenotyping and humoural and cellular immune responses were observed. It is concluded that doses of integerrimine N-oxide here employed did not produce marked immunotoxic effects. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

da Silva T.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Cogliati B.,University of Sao Paulo | da Silva A.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Fukumasu H.,University of Sao Paulo | And 5 more authors.
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2010

Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) roots and/or its extracts have shown anti-neoplastic, chemopreventive, and anti-angiogenic properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the chemopreventive mechanisms of this root in mice submitted to the infant model of hepatocarcinogenesis, evaluating the effects on cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and intercellular communication. Fifteen-day-old BALB/c male mice were given, i.p., 10 μg/g of the carcinogen N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). Animals were separated into three groups at weaning and were given different concentrations of powdered P. paniculata root (0%, 2%, or 10%) added to commercial food for 27 weeks. Control group (CT) was not exposed to the carcinogen and was given ration without the root. After euthanasia, the animals' liver and body weight were measured. Liver fragments were sampled to study intercellular communication, molecular biology, and histopathological analysis. Cellular proliferation was evaluated by immunohistochemistry for PCNA, apoptosis was evaluated by apoptotic bodies count and alkaline comet technique, and intercellular communication by diffusion of lucifer yellow dye, immunofluorescence, western blot and real-time PCR for connexins 26 and 32. Chronic treatment with powdered P. paniculata root reduced cellular proliferation and increased apoptosis in the 2% group. Animals in the 10% group had an increase in apoptosis with chronic inflammatory process. Intercellular communication showed no alterations in any of the groups analyzed. These results indicate that chemopreventive effects of P. paniculata are related to the control of cellular proliferation and apoptosis, but not to cell communication and/or connexin expression, and are directly influenced by the root concentration. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Catroxo M.H.B.,Biological Institute of Sao Paulo | Taniguchi D.L.,Biological Institute of Sao Paulo | Melo N.A.,Biological Institute of Sao Paulo | Milanelo L.,Tiete Ecological Park | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Morphology | Year: 2010

The barn-owl (Tyto Alba) and striped-owl (Rhinoptynx clamator) belong respectively to the families Tytonidae and Strigidae. Avian paramyxoviruses have been isolated from a variety of species of wild and domestic birds wordlwide causing diverse clinical symptoms and signs. Paramyxoviruses belong to the family Paramyxoviridae and Avulovirus genus, including nine serotypes (APMV 1 to 9). The lymphoid leukosis is a retrovirus-induced neoplasia. The avian retroviruses belong to the Retroviridae family and to the Alpharetrovirus genus. Coronaviruses can cause respiratory and enteric disease in several species of birds. They belong to the Coronaviridae family and to the groups 3a e 3c. In this study, we describe the presence of viruses in four owls, two barn owls (Tyto alba) and two striped owls (Rhinoptynx clamator), rescued from tree-lined streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil and sent to the Recovery Center of Wild Animals of the Tietê Ecological Park, where the animals died. Fragments of lung, liver and small intestine of these birds were processed for transmission electron microscopy utilizing negative staining (rapid preparation), immunoelectron microscopy and immunocitochemistry techniques. Under the transmission electron microscopy paramyxovirus particles, pleomorphic, roughly spherical or filamentous, measuring 100 to 500 nm of diameter containing an envelope covered by spikes, an herring-bone helical nucleocapsidlike structure, measuring 15 to 20 nm in diameter, were visualized in the samples of lung, liver and small intestine of all owls. In small intestine samples of the two striped-owl (owls 3 and 4) it was detected pleomorphic coronavirus particles with a diameter of 75-160 nm containing a solar corona-shaped envelope, with projections of approximately 20 nm of diameter. In liver fragments of one striped-owl (owl 4) pleomorphic particles of retrovirus with a diameter of 80-145 nm containing an envelope with short projections and diameter of 9 nm were observed. The presence of aggregates formed by antigen-antibody interaction, characterized the positive result obtained during the immunoelectron microscopy technique for paramyxovirus, retrovirus and coronavirus. In the immunocytochemistry technique, the antigen-antibody interaction was strongly enhanced by the dense colloidal gold particles over these viruses.

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