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Introduction. Since its arrival in Senegal in 2004, Bactrocera invadens (Diptera Tephritidae) synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis has caused much economic damage in mango crops. Effective and efficient control activities against B. invadens were necessary in order to continue mango production, and biological control measures were envisaged. In such conditions, the government of Senegal allowed the Asian parasitoid Fopius arisanus to be released in some orchards around Ziguinchor. Materials and methods. The dynamics of fruit fly species was studied with lure traps (methyl eugenol and terpinyl acetate with Dichlorvos). Mango fruit were sampled from the control orchard and orchards with released F. arisanus, to compare the differences in tephritid infestation. Results and discussion. The levels of B. invadens populations were 1.6-2.5 times higher in the control than in orchards where F. arisanus was released. The fruit were also 5-6 times more infested in the control orchard than in those that received F. arisanus. Between May and July 2012 the majority of the pupae (92%) collected from fruit samples developed into adult flies, while only 39% of the pupae transformed to adults between October and December after effective action of the parasitoids. In both orchard treatments, the level of native fruit fly populations was about the same. Wild fruit were infested mostly by Ceratitis cosyra, from which were reared native parasitoids such as Fopius caudatus, F. silvestrii, F. desideratus, Diachasmimorpha fullawayi, D. carinata, Psyttalia cosyrae, and P. concolor. In contrast with Mangifera indica, Citrus spp., Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guayava, Saba senegalensis, and Landolphia heudelotii were mainly infested by B. invadens which showed parasitism by F. arisanus. Pteromalidae and Eulophidae were also found from the pest fly pupae. Killer flies (Diptera: Muscidae) such as Coenosia attenuata Stein, C. atra Meigen and C. tigrina Fabricius emerged from the fruit samples. Conclusion. Sanitation against fruit flies in Casamance should take into account the conservation of natural enemies such as parasitoids and predators for an effective biological control of tephritids. © 2015 Cirad/EDP Sciences. Source

Vayssieres J.-F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Vayssieres J.-F.,Biological Control Unit for Africa | De Meyer M.,Royal Museum for Central Africa | Ouagoussounon I.,University Abomey Calavi | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2015

We report the results of a large-scale (six orchards) and long-term (5-yr) study on seasonal population fluctuations of fruit flies (Diptera Tephritidae) in mango (2005-2009) and cashew (2007-2009) orchards in the Borgou Department, Benin. During the five consecutive years of mango fruit fly monitoring, 25 tephritid species were captured including three species of Bactrocera, 11 of Ceratitis, and 11 of Dacus, which is represented by 2,138,150 specimens in mango orchards. We observed significant differences in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) counts between "high" and "low" mango production years from 2005 to 2008 but not in Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) counts. The native species, C. cosyra, the most abundant species during the dry season, peaked beginning of May, while the exotic species, B. dorsalis, the most abundant species during the rainy season, peaked in June. Preliminary results underlined the role of nine species of wild hosts and seven species of cultivated ones around mango orchards that played an important role in maintaining B. dorsalis in this Sudan zone all year round. The presence of C. cosyra stretched over 9 mo. During the first 14 wk of tephritid monitoring on cashew orchards situated near mango orchards, most flies (62%) were captured in traps positioned in cashew orchards, showing the strong interest of an early fly control on cashew before the mango season. According to these results, in the Sudan zone, effective and compatible control methods as proposed by the IPM package validated by the West African Fruit Fly Initiative project against mango fruit flies are proposed for a large regional tephritid control program in same zones ofWest Africa. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

De Villiers M.,Stellenbosch University | Hattingh V.,Stellenbosch University | Kriticos D.J.,CSIRO | Kriticos D.J.,Charles Sturt University | And 9 more authors.
Bulletin of Entomological Research | Year: 2016

A species in the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex was detected in Kenya during 2003 and classified as Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White. Having spread rapidly throughout Africa, it threatens agriculture due to crop damage and loss of market access. In a recent revision of the B. dorsalis complex, B. invadens was incorporated into the species B. dorsalis. The potential distribution of B. dorsalis has been previously modelled. However, previous models were based on presence data and did not incorporate information on the seasonal phenology of B. dorsalis, nor on the possible influence that irrigation may have on its distribution. Methyl eugenol-baited traps were used to collect B. dorsalis in Africa. Seasonal phenology data, measured as fly abundance throughout the year, was related to each location's climate to infer climatic growth response parameters. These functions were used along with African distribution records and development studies to fit the niche model for B. dorsalis, using independent global distribution records outside Africa for model validation. Areas at greatest risk of invasion by B. dorsalis are South and Central America, Mexico, southernmost USA, parts of the Mediterranean coast, parts of Southern and Eastern Australia and New Zealand's North Island. Under irrigation, most of Africa and Australia appear climatically suitable. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015. Source

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