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Elekcioglu N.Z.,Biological Control Research Station | Uygun N.,Cukurova University
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

The seasonal abundance, parasitoid complex and percentage of parasitism of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) were investigated in three grapefruit orchards in the eastern Mediterranean region in 2005-2007. Phyllocnistis citrella populations increased during summer months and declined during fall. During the study period, 2-3 peaks of both pest and parasitoid populations were detected on the summer shoots and 1-2 peaks on the fall shoots. At the experimental sites, 10 parasitoid species and unidentified individuals belonging to 2 genera were determined to attack P. citrella. Citrostichus phyllocnistoides Narayanan (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was the most abundant parasitoid (72.8%), followed by Cirrospilus brevis Zhu, LaSalle and Huang (11.2%) and C. ingenuus Gahan (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) (7.1%). Sympiesis striatipes (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was determined for the first time as a parasitoid of P. citrella in Turkey. Parasitism ratio (%) ranged between 39.56-50.67% in Hatay, 42.60-47.61% in Adana and 35.60-41.25% in Mersin during the study years. The highest rates of parasitism were observed at the end of summer and in the fall. It was determined that percent parasitism was significantly correlated with increases of P. citrella density, but did not significantly differ among the study sites and years. The results show that C. phyllocnistoides has an important role among the P. citrella parasitoids present in Turkey due to its frequency. Copyright 2013 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Elekcioglu N.Z.,Biological Control Research Station
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

Yellow, white and blue sticky traps were tested in lemon and orange orchards for their attractiveness to thrips in Adana during 2006-2007. Traps were adjusted vertically facing to south at a height of 1.5-2.0 m of trees. Species composition and distribution of thrips in the orchards were investigated by collecting 125 flowers from different directions of the trees. Thrips damage associated with citrus crops was determined by observing 1000 fruits for scars. Blue was the most attractive to thrips in both lemon and orange orchards and can be used to estimate the population density and for properly timing control applications. Fifteen thrips species and unidentified individuals belonging to 3 genera were determined in these orchards. Frankliniella occidentalis was the most captured thrips species accounting for 82.0% of the total individuals sampled in both years. Cardinal direction of flowers did not significantly affect the numbers of thrips. Fruit damage for both years ranged between 3.8% and 9.1% depending on the citrus varieties. Lemon was attacked by thrips more than orange. © 2013 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

In this study, natural mortality factors of Citrus Leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) were investigated under field conditions. The studies were carried out in a lemon orchard in Adana, Turkey during 2007-2008. Ten trees were selected and weekly one shoot from each tree, and a total of ten shoots, were collected randomly during May-November. In the laboratory, the first 15 leaves were checked using a binocular microscope. All biological stages of the pest and the parasitoids, dead or infected individuals, and empty mines, were counted. According to the method and symptoms of predation, the mortality factors of the pest were recorded. In 2007 and 2008, large numbers of larvae were parasitized (46.25% and 48.12%, respectively). The larval parasitoid Citrostichus phyllocnistoides Narayanan (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was the abundant species in both years. The third instar of the host had the highest percent of parasitized individuals. In the first year, 15.33% of the pest were consumed by spiders, 10.07% by Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and 3.14% by ants, whereas in the second year these ratios were 16.61%, 8.57% and 3.78%, respectively. Second instar larvae were the most preferred stage for predation. In 2007, in 13.66% of the mines no pests were recorded, whereas the mortality source of 5.19% of the larvae and pupae was not detected. In 2008, these ratios were 10.21% and 6.87%, respectively. It was determined that predators are as effective as the parasitoids in the biological control of the pest.

Altinok H.H.,Erciyes University | Dikilitas M.,Harran University | Yildiz H.N.,Biological Control Research Station
Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment | Year: 2013

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria found on plant roots that induce growth by a wide variety of mechanisms. Ten isolates of Pseudomonas and Bacillus were isolated from eggplant rhizosphere soil and evaluated for their volatile compound efficacy against mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae (Fomg) and tested for their ability to colonize eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) roots in vitro. PGPR strains inhibited mycelial growth of the target pathogen and the percentage of inhibition varied from 38 % to 72 % by means of inhibitory activities. Pseudomanas aeruginosa (P07-1) and P. putida (P11-4) were determined to be successful colonizers in eggplant seedlings. Also, a pot experiment was conducted to assess the induced resistance to Fusarium wilt of eggplant by PGPR strains. Among the PGPR isolates, P. aeruginosa (P07-1), P. putida (P11-4), P. aeruginosa (85A-2), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (76A-1) and B. cereus (B10a) significantly reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence by up to 85 %. However, their combination was not more effective in suppressing the disease than the application of those isolates alone. The induction of peroxidase (POX, EC and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC enzymes was found to be significantly higher in comparison with the control group. Similarly, the proline levels in eggplants showed an increasing trend with the above isolates. However, catalase (CAT, activity was not found to significantly contribute to the induced resistance mechanism. This study revealed that the promising PGPR isolates could be potentially very useful for the biocontrol of Fomg via enhancing disease resistance in eggplant plants.

Sezen S.M.,Tarsus Research Unit | Yazar A.,Cukurova University | Dasgan Y.,Cukurova University | Yucel S.,Biological Control Research Station | And 3 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2014

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of water stress on yield and various physiological parameters including crop water stress index for drip and furrow irrigated processing red pepper in the 2010-2011 growing seasons in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Drip treatments consisted of full irrigation (DFI), deficit irrigation DDI-75 and DDI-50 which received 75 and 50% of DFI, respectively. D-PRD-50 and DF-PRD-50 alternative and fixed partial root drying, received 50% of DFI. Furrow treatments consisted of full irrigation (FFI), fixed alternative furrow (FAF-50) and PRD furrow (FPRD-50). FAF-50 and FPRD-50 received 50% of water applied to FFI. In FAF-50 the same furrows were irrigated while FPRD-50 was irrigated in alternate furrows. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications for drip and furrow treatments. Both irrigation methods and levels had a significant effect on the total yield of red pepper. Drip produced higher red pepper yields than furrow. The highest yield was obtained from the DFI treatment followed by DDI-75, DDI-50 and DF-PRD-50 treatments. Although, D-PRD-50, DF-PRD-50 and DDI-50 received the same amount of water, D-PRD-50 had a higher yield. In furrow, FFI resulted in the highest yield followed by FPRD-50 and FAF-50. The lowest water use efficiency (WUE) was obtained from the DFI while the highest WUE was found in DPRD-50 in drip system. The lowest WUE was found in FFI, and the highest WUE was in FPRD-50 treatment under furrow. The threshold crop water stress index (CWSI) was 0.26 for drip and 0.38 for furrow prior to irrigation. There was a significant relation between yield and CWSI. A high correlation was found between CWSI and leaf area index. The results revealed that DFI for the drip and FFI for the furrow were recommended. Under water scarcity conditions, DDI-75 and D-PRD-50 treatments can be recommended. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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