Schluter S.,Biological and Environmental EngineeringOregon State UniversityCorvallis |
Berg S.,Royal Dutch Shell |
Rucker M.,Royal Dutch Shell |
Armstrong R.T.,The New School |
And 3 more authors.
Water Resources Research | Year: 2016
The macroscopic description of the hysteretic behavior of two-phase flow in porous media remains a challenge. It is not obvious how to represent the underlying pore-scale processes at the Darcy-scale in a consistent way. Darcy-scale thermodynamic models do not completely eliminate hysteresis and our findings indicate that the shape of displacement fronts is an additional source of hysteresis that has not been considered before. This is a shortcoming because effective process behavior such as trapping efficiency of CO2 or oil production during water flooding are directly linked to pore-scale displacement mechanisms with very different front shape such as capillary fingering, flat frontal displacement, or cluster growth. Here we introduce fluid topology, expressed by the Euler characteristic of the nonwetting phase (χn), as a shape measure of displacement fronts. Using two high-quality data sets obtained by fast X-ray tomography, we show that χn is hysteretic between drainage and imbibition and characteristic for the underlying displacement pattern. In a more physical sense, the Euler characteristic can be interpreted as a parameter describing local fluid connectedness. It may provide the closing link between a topological characterization and macroscopic formulations of two-phase immiscible displacement in porous rock. Since fast X-ray tomography is currently becoming a mature technique, we expect a significant growth in high-quality data sets of real time fluid displacement processes in the future. The novel measures of fluid topology presented here have the potential to become standard metrics needed to fully explore them. © 2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Coblyn M.,Biological and Environmental EngineeringOregon State UniversityCorvallis |
Truszkowska A.,Biological and Environmental EngineeringOregon State UniversityCorvallis |
Heintz K.,Biological and Environmental EngineeringOregon State UniversityCorvallis |
Mcguire J.,Biological and Environmental EngineeringOregon State UniversityCorvallis |
Jovanovic G.,Biological and Environmental EngineeringOregon State UniversityCorvallis
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials | Year: 2015
Obstruction of fluid flow by stationary bubbles in a microchannel hemodialyzer decreases filtration performance and increases damage to blood cells through flow maldistribution. A polyethylene oxide (PEO)-polybutadiene (PB)-polyethylene oxide surface modification, previously shown to reduce protein fouling and water/air contact angle in polycarbonate microchannel hemodialyzers, can improve microchannel wettability and may reduce bubble stagnation by lessening the resistive forces that compete with fluid flow. In this study, the effect of the PEO-PB-PEO coating on bubble retention in a microchannel array was investigated. Polycarbonate microchannel surfaces were coated with PEO-PB-PEO triblock polymer via radiolytic grafting. Channel obstruction was measured for coated and uncoated microchannels after injecting a short stream of air bubbles into the device under average nominal water velocities of 0.9 to 7.2 cm/s in the channels. The presence of the PEO coating reduced obstruction of microchannels by stationary bubbles within the range of 1.8 to 3.6 cm/s, average nominal velocity. Numerical simulations based on the lattice Boltzmann method indicate that beneficial effects may be due to the maintenance of a lubricating, thin liquid film around the bubble. The determined effective range of the PEO coating for bubble management serves as an important design constraint. These findings serve to validate the multiutility of the PEO-PB-PEO coating (bubble lubrication, biocompatibility, and therapeutic loading). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.