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Trexler E.T.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Smith-Ryan A.E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Norton L.E.,BioLayne LLC
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition | Year: 2014

Optimized body composition provides a competitive advantage in a variety of sports. Weight reduction is common among athletes aiming to improve their strength-to-mass ratio, locomotive efficiency, or aesthetic appearance. Energy restriction is accompanied by changes in circulating hormones, mitochondrial efficiency, and energy expenditure that serve to minimize the energy deficit, attenuate weight loss, and promote weight regain. The current article reviews the metabolic adaptations observed with weight reduction and provides recommendations for successful weight reduction and long term reduced-weight maintenance in athletes. © 2014 Trexler et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Wilson J.M.,The University of Tampa | Wilson S.M.C.,IMG Performance Institute | Loenneke J.P.,University of Oklahoma | Wray M.,University of Oklahoma | And 4 more authors.
Strength and Conditioning Journal | Year: 2012

Groups of amino acids, as well as individual amino acids, have been studied for their roles in protein balance, hormone secretion, immune function, or capacity to be converted to various anabolic or anticatabolic metabolites. Specific amino acids with extensive analysis include the essential amino acids, branched chain amino acids, arginine, taurine, glutamine, b-alanine, and the leucine metabolite, b-hydroxyb- methylbutyrate. The purpose of this article is to analyze the possible roles and practical applications of these amino acids in the regulation of body composition and performance in anaerobic and aerobic sports. Copyright © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Wilson J.M.,The University of Tampa | Lowery R.P.,The University of Tampa | Joy J.M.,The University of Tampa | Walters J.A.,The University of Tampa | And 10 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of short-term supplementation with the free acid form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) on indices of muscle damage, protein breakdown, recovery and hormone status following a high-volume resistance training session in trained athletes. A total of twenty resistance-trained males were recruited to participate in a high-volume resistance training session centred on full squats, bench presses and dead lifts. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 3 g/d of HMB-FA or a placebo. Immediately before the exercise session and 48 h post-exercise, serum creatine kinase (CK), urinary 3-methylhistadine (3-MH), testosterone, cortisol and perceived recovery status (PRS) scale measurements were taken. The results showed that CK increased to a greater extent in the placebo (329 %) than in the HMB-FA group (104 %) (P= 0·004, d= 1·6). There was also a significant change for PRS, which decreased to a greater extent in the placebo (9·1 (sem 0·4) to 4·6 (sem 0·5)) than in the HMB-FA group (9·1 (sem 0·3) to 6·3 (sem 0·3)) (P= 0·005, d=-0·48). Muscle protein breakdown, measured by 3-MH analysis, numerically decreased with HMB-FA supplementation and approached significance (P= 0·08, d= 0·12). There were no acute changes in plasma total or free testosterone, cortisol or C-reactive protein. In conclusion, these results suggest that an HMB-FA supplement given to trained athletes before exercise can blunt increases in muscle damage and prevent declines in perceived readiness to train following a high-volume, muscle-damaging resistance-training session. © 2013 The Authors. Source


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BioLayne LLC | Date: 2015-03-06

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