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This report deals with cytogenetics in a broader sense rather than the classical use mainly to describe the chromosome structure and identify abnormalities related to disease. In the age of molecular biology, it is also referred to as molecular cytogenetics. The scope of cytogenetics includes several technologies besides fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and multicolor FISH. Molecular cytogenetics includes application of nanobiotechnology, microarrays, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in vivo imaging, and single molecule detection. Bioinformatics is described briefly as it plays an important role in analyzing data from many of these technologies. FISH remains the single most important technology in cytogenetics. Several innovations are described of which the most important are single copy FISH, in vivo FISH (imaging of nucleic acids in living cells) and nanotechnology-based FISH. The unique character of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) allows these probes to hybridize to target nucleic acid molecules more rapidly and with higher affinity and specificity compared with DNA probes. PNA-FISH is more suited for rapid diagnosis of infections. RNA-FISH and locked nucleic acids (LNAs), are also described. Microarray/biochip-based technologies for cytogenetics promise to speed up detection of chromosome aberrations now examined by FISH. Other important genomic technologies are whole genome expression array and direct molecular analysis without amplification. Analysis of single-cell gene expression promises a more precise understanding of human disease pathogenesis and has important diagnostic applications. Optical Mapping can survey entire human genomes for insertions/deletions, which account for a significantly greater proportion of genetic variation between closely-related genomes as compared to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and are a major cause of gene defects. The report includes summary profiles of 69 companies relevant to cytogenetics along with their 80 collaborations. Companies developing innovative technologies as well as those supplying equipment/services/reagents are identified. The report text is supplemented with 27 Tables and 9 figures. Selected 200 references are included in the bibliography. Key Topics Covered: Executive Summary 1. Introduction 2. Technologies used for cytogenetics 3. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization 4. Genomic Technologies relevant to Cytogenetics 5. Molecular Imaging & Single Molecular Detection 6. Role of Nanobiotechnology in Cytogenetics 7. Biomarkers and Cytogenetics 8. Applications of Cytogenetics 9. Cancer Cytogenetics 10. Cytogenetics Markets 11. Companies 12. References For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/vzv3hl/cytogenetics Research and Markets Laura Wood, Senior Manager press@researchandmarkets.com For E.S.T Office Hours Call +1-917-300-0470 For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call +1-800-526-8630 For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900 U.S. Fax: 646-607-1907 Fax (outside U.S.): +353-1-481-1716 To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-2017-cytogenetics-technologies-markets-and-companies-report---projections-to-2026-69-companies-with-80-collaborations---research-and-markets-300455435.html


Receive press releases from iHealthcareAnalyst, Inc.: By Email Global Biotechnology Market Research Reports, Competitive Analytics, Trends and Forecast 2017-2021 by iHealthcareAnalyst, Inc. Biotechnology Market reports by iHealthcareAnalyst, Inc. include Aptamers, Array Instruments, Bioinformatics, Biopreservation, Biosensors, Cancer Genome Sequencing, Cell Culture, Cell Culture Media, Sera, Reagents, Cell Culture Protein Surface Coatings, Cell Separation Technologies, Cell Surface Markers, Computational Biology, E. coli Diagnostics Testing, Genome Engineering or Genome Editing, Human Insulin, Immunoassay Analyzers, etc. Maryland Heights, MO, May 19, 2017 --( The global biotechnology market report provides market size (Revenue USD Million 2014 to 2021), market share, market trends and forecasts growth trends (CAGR%, 2017 to 2021). The global market research reports are divided by geography into North America (U.S., Canada), Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, Rest of LA), Europe (U.K., Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Rest of EU), Asia Pacific (Japan, China, India, Rest of APAC), and Rest of the World. The global reports also provide detailed market landscape (market drivers, restraints, opportunities), market attractiveness and profitability analysis as well as profiles of major competitors in the global market which includes company overview, financial snapshot, key products, technologies and services offered, and recent developments. Browse Global Biotechnology Reports, Competitive Analytics, Growth Trends and Forecast 2017-2021 by iHealthcareAnalyst, Inc. at https://www.ihealthcareanalyst.com/reports/biotechnology/ Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Executive Summary 2.1. Market Size Estimation (Revenue USD Million, 2014-2021) 2.2. Forecast Estimation (Revenue USD Million and CAGR%, 2017-2021) 3. Research Methodology 4. Market Landscape 4.1. Market Dynamics 4.1.1. Drivers 4.1.2. Barriers 4.1.3. Opportunities 4.2. Market Share Analysis 4.2.1. Companies 4.2.2. Products 4.3. Market Trends Analysis 4.3.1. Key success factors 4.3.2. Market Growth Rate 4.4. Market Attractiveness Analysis 4.5. Market Profitability Analysis 4.5.1. Buyer power 4.5.2. Supplier power 4.5.3. Barriers to entry 4.5.4. Threat of substitute products 4.5.5. Rivalry among firms in the industry 4.6. Distribution Channels 5. Market Segmentation 5.1. Product Type (cells, media, serum, vaccine, protein, instrument, etc.) 5.2. Source Type 5.3. Reagents and Consumables Type 5.4. Diagnostic Test 5.5. Indication Type 5.6. Technology 5.7. Diagnostics, Therapeutic or Surgical Application 5.8. End User Groups 6. Geography (Region, Country) 6.1. North America (U.S., Canada) 6.2. Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, Rest of LA) 6.3. Europe (U.K., Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Rest of EU) 6.4. Asia Pacific (Japan, China, India, Rest of APAC) 6.5. Rest of the World 7. Company Profiles 7.1. Company Overview 7.2. Financial Snapshot (FY 2014-2016) 7.3. Product Portfolio 7.4. Business Strategies 7.5. Recent Developments 8. Recommendations 9. References To request Table of Contents and Sample Pages of these reports visit: https://www.ihealthcareanalyst.com/reports/biotechnology/ About Us iHealthcareAnalyst, Inc. is a global healthcare market research and consulting company providing market analysis, and competitive intelligence services to global clients. The company publishes syndicate, custom and consulting grade healthcare reports covering animal healthcare, biotechnology, clinical diagnostics, healthcare informatics, healthcare services, medical devices, medical equipment, and pharmaceuticals. In addition to multi-client studies, we offer creative consulting services and conduct proprietary single-client assignments targeted at client’s specific business objectives, information needs, time frame and budget. Please contact us to receive a proposal for a proprietary single-client study. Contact Us iHealthcareAnalyst, Inc. 2109, Mckelvey Hill Drive, Maryland Heights, MO 63043 United States Email: sales@ihealthcareanalyst.com Website: https://www.ihealthcareanalyst.com Maryland Heights, MO, May 19, 2017 --( PR.com )-- The published titles of Biotechnology Market reports by iHealthcareAnalyst, Inc. include Aptamers, Array Instruments, Bioinformatics, Biopreservation, Biosensors, Cancer Genome Sequencing, Cell Culture, Cell Culture Media, Sera, Reagents, Cell Culture Protein Surface Coatings, Cell Separation Technologies, Cell Surface Markers, Computational Biology, E. coli Diagnostics Testing, Genome Engineering or Genome Editing, Human Insulin, Immunoassay Analyzers, Immunoprotein Diagnostic Testing, In Vitro Colorectal Cancer Testing, In Vitro Diagnostics, Life Science Reagents, Medical Cameras, Medical Microscopes, Meningococcal Vaccines, Metabolomics, Microbiology Cultures, Molecular Cytogenetics, Molecular Diagnostics, Monoclonal Antibody Therapeutics, Multiplexed Diagnostics, Next-Generation Sequencing, Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis Biomarkers, Orthobiologics, Platelet Rich Plasma, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Prenatal and Newborn Genetic Testing, Protein Engineering, Regenerative Medicines, Separation Systems for Commercial Biotechnology, Single Cell Analysis, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genotyping, Sperm Bank, Stem Cells, Tissue Engineered Skin Substitutes, Transcriptomics Technologies, and Transfection Technologies.The global biotechnology market report provides market size (Revenue USD Million 2014 to 2021), market share, market trends and forecasts growth trends (CAGR%, 2017 to 2021). The global market research reports are divided by geography into North America (U.S., Canada), Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, Rest of LA), Europe (U.K., Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Rest of EU), Asia Pacific (Japan, China, India, Rest of APAC), and Rest of the World. The global reports also provide detailed market landscape (market drivers, restraints, opportunities), market attractiveness and profitability analysis as well as profiles of major competitors in the global market which includes company overview, financial snapshot, key products, technologies and services offered, and recent developments.Browse Global Biotechnology Reports, Competitive Analytics, Growth Trends and Forecast 2017-2021 by iHealthcareAnalyst, Inc. at https://www.ihealthcareanalyst.com/reports/biotechnology/Table of Contents1. Introduction2. Executive Summary2.1. Market Size Estimation (Revenue USD Million, 2014-2021)2.2. Forecast Estimation (Revenue USD Million and CAGR%, 2017-2021)3. Research Methodology4. Market Landscape4.1. Market Dynamics4.1.1. Drivers4.1.2. Barriers4.1.3. Opportunities4.2. Market Share Analysis4.2.1. Companies4.2.2. Products4.3. Market Trends Analysis4.3.1. Key success factors4.3.2. Market Growth Rate4.4. Market Attractiveness Analysis4.5. Market Profitability Analysis4.5.1. Buyer power4.5.2. Supplier power4.5.3. Barriers to entry4.5.4. Threat of substitute products4.5.5. Rivalry among firms in the industry4.6. Distribution Channels5. Market Segmentation5.1. Product Type (cells, media, serum, vaccine, protein, instrument, etc.)5.2. Source Type5.3. Reagents and Consumables Type5.4. Diagnostic Test5.5. Indication Type5.6. Technology5.7. Diagnostics, Therapeutic or Surgical Application5.8. End User Groups6. Geography (Region, Country)6.1. North America (U.S., Canada)6.2. Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, Rest of LA)6.3. Europe (U.K., Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Rest of EU)6.4. Asia Pacific (Japan, China, India, Rest of APAC)6.5. Rest of the World7. Company Profiles7.1. Company Overview7.2. Financial Snapshot (FY 2014-2016)7.3. Product Portfolio7.4. Business Strategies7.5. Recent Developments8. Recommendations9. ReferencesTo request Table of Contents and Sample Pages of these reports visit:https://www.ihealthcareanalyst.com/reports/biotechnology/About UsiHealthcareAnalyst, Inc. is a global healthcare market research and consulting company providing market analysis, and competitive intelligence services to global clients. The company publishes syndicate, custom and consulting grade healthcare reports covering animal healthcare, biotechnology, clinical diagnostics, healthcare informatics, healthcare services, medical devices, medical equipment, and pharmaceuticals.In addition to multi-client studies, we offer creative consulting services and conduct proprietary single-client assignments targeted at client’s specific business objectives, information needs, time frame and budget. Please contact us to receive a proposal for a proprietary single-client study.Contact UsiHealthcareAnalyst, Inc.2109, Mckelvey Hill Drive,Maryland Heights, MO 63043United StatesEmail: sales@ihealthcareanalyst.comWebsite: https://www.ihealthcareanalyst.com Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from iHealthcareAnalyst, Inc.


News Article | May 16, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Researchers from the Vavilov Institute of General Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (VIGG) and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) have established a catalog of mutations in 319 virulence genes of mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis. These genes encode proteins that suppress human immune response. Further analysis identified a set of three mutations which may enable mycobacteria to develop rapidly in an immunocompromised environment. The emerging strains of TB pathogens require new treatment approaches including the development of new genetically engineered vaccines that take into account both the immune status of a patient and the specific virulence features of a pathogen. The article was published in Genome Biology and Evolution (Oxford University Press, UK). According to the World Health Organization, TB remains one of the most dangerous human infectious diseases, causing over 1.8 million deaths annually. TB is caused by a bacterium known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Koch's bacillus. It is clear that HIV-positive individuals and patients with other immunodeficiency conditions are mainly at risk. More than 20 percent of TB cases are connected with smoking. TB is no longer a social disease: It affects members of all social strata. This change was caused by the stresses of modern life>M. tuberculosis has become increasingly resistant to both the environmental factors and antibiotics, which used to guarantee effective treatment. At the same time, the symptoms of TB have become less noticeable. The bacterium can remain in the host body for decades infecting other people. According to WHO statistics, one-third of the world's population is infected with TB. The most serious problem we are currently facing is drug resistant TB aggravated by the adaptation of new pathogenic strains to weakened immunity. Prof. Valery Danilenko of the Department of Biological and Medical Physics at MIPT, the head of the Department of Genetics and Biotechnology at VIGG, comments on the issue: "Humanity is trying to beat the disease with new drugs and innovative treatment methods, but we have -- tactically speaking -- already lost the battle. During the last 50 years of research, only one antibiotic with a novel type of action has been produced -- Bedaquiline. It has been in use for about two years now. However, mycobacteria have already developed mutations that make them resistant to that drug." New strains of drug-resistant bacteria with altered virulence have already sensed our weakness: They "know" if some of us have compromised immunity, and they are exploiting precisely this weakness by targeting immunodeficient patients. Bioinformatics and genetics help identify a dangerous strain of TB pathogens Researchers currently identify 7-8 major M. tuberculosis lineages (groups). They differ from one another in mutations in various genes. A genome can have from 300 to 1,000 of such lineage-specific mutations, or SNPs. The term SNP (pronounced "snip") means a mutation in a particular gene involving the substitution of only one nucleotide. If the mutation occurs in a functional part of a virulence gene, the protein encoded by that gene will trigger a different host immune response. This enables the pathogen to overcome host resistance mechanisms developed in childhood as a result of BCG (anti-TB) vaccination. Natalya Mikheecheva, a researcher at the Laboratory of Bacterial Genetics at VIGG with a bioinformatics degree from MIPT, explains: "We carried out research aimed at identifying the genes and mutations in them that allow mycobacteria to thrive in people with altered immune status including HIV-positive patients. We developed a catalog of SNPs in more than 300 virulence genes. Virulence was defined as the ability of a pathogen to cause disease, overcome host resistance via invasion and adhesion to host cells, and adapt to hostile environments, including immune response modulation." Each lineage was found to comprise dozens or even hundreds of sublineages, depending on the specific gene and the location of the mutation. Bioinformatics analysis conducted using software developed at MIPT's Department of Biological and Medical Physics (MIPT) revealed mutations specific to an epidemiologically dangerous sublineage within the Beijing-B0 lineage. The scientists used databases of sequenced and described genomes to track the spread of the epidemiologically dangerous B0/N-90 sublineage in Russia and the neighboring European countries Belarus, Moldova, and Sweden. To combat drug-resistant TB, an international consortium called TBResist was formed in 2008. Its members include leading experts in medicine, genetics, bioinformatics, etc. from the U.S., Sweden, Russia, the U.K., Bangladesh, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Taiwan, and other countries. Prof. Danilenko who led the research in Russia says: "Our work with the international consortium involved cooperating with our colleagues from South Africa and China to draft a project aimed at investigating the epidemiologically dangerous strain identified in our study. The project is currently being considered by expert communities of the three countries including the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. Our goal is to warn the international community and the health ministries of the BRICS countries of the impending danger. In the '80s, it was the HIV. We may well expect something similar from new mutated TB strains--it's a Pandora's box." Treatments that are available now can cure the disease within a year or two. However, we could see the emergence of mutant pathogens developing rapidly in certain population groups. With the flu, there is an established practice of making a new vaccine every year to counteract the latest mutated strain of influenza. But unlike the influenza virus, which only has several genes, M. tuberculosis has more than 300 virulence genes, each of them potentially subject to mutations. For the last 30 years, scientists all over the world have been trying to design a genetically engineered TB vaccine. To do this, only certain genes of the bacterium are used, not its whole genome. These genes are cloned to obtain their protein products, which are then used to vaccinate patients and monitor their immune response. There are, however, hundreds of M. tuberculosis sublineages. The research findings indicate that vaccines need to take into account such factors as the host's immune status and the presence in the pathogen of any of at least a dozen epidemiologically dangerous lineages with mutations in particular virulence genes. Prof. Danilenko drives the point home: "We detected mutations that may enable the bacteria to thrive by exploiting compromised immunity. From that point, it is basically analogous to the flu: We suggest that vaccines against specific TB lineages need to be developed using the genes identified through the bioinformatics analysis of hundreds of sequenced genomes. This will help us to find a basic approach that could inhibit the spread of the dangerous lineages. We have also developed diagnostic tests to identify such lineages." On April 13-14, an international academic and research conference titled "Current Methods of Comprehensive Health Care for TB-infected and HIV-positive Patients: Implementation, Development, Resources" was held in Yekaterinburg. The plenary session of the conference featured a report on "Genetically Engineered TB Vaccination: Current Research, Problems, and Prospects." Prof. Igor Krasilnikov, a recognized expert in vaccine development, talked about the plans of several Russian research and government organizations (Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations, the Ministry of Health, Federal Medical and Biological Agency, MIPT) based on new ideas and paradigms that have emerged over the last years.


SAN DIEGO & NEW HAVEN, Conn.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The Rady Children’s Institute for Genomic Medicine (RCIGM) and Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ:ALXN) today announced a strategic partnership to accelerate the diagnosis of critically-ill newborns with rare genetic disorders. The collaboration combines the Institute’s genomic research expertise with Alexion data science and bioinformatics capabilities to advance precision medicine for infants in an intensive care setting. “Diagnosing acutely ill babies is a race against the clock, so it’s essential for physicians to have access to solutions that will provide answers faster and help set the course of treatment,” said Stephen Kingsmore, MD, DSc, President and CEO of the Institute. “Winning this race will require collaborative effort, which is why we are delighted to work with the people at Alexion who share our vision for unraveling the mysteries of genetic disease and giving hope to families with critically sick newborns.” There is great need for employing such technology in medicine. As many as 15 percent of babies born in the United States are admitted to neonatal or pediatric intensive care units (NICU/PICU). Among these infants, up to one-third are likely to be affected by genetic diseases or congenital anomalies which are also the leading cause of death among babies in the NICU. 1-11 Rapid diagnosis through genome sequencing can provide definitive answers, allowing physicians to provide timely, targeted treatment that can help prevent a needless diagnostic odyssey and improve medical outcomes. The rapidly falling cost of whole-genome sequencing increases the feasibility for clinical testing for rare genetic diseases. However, the amount and complexity of data continues to grow. “In rare diseases, rapid diagnosis is made all the more challenging by the significant amount of genomic and phenotypic data a clinician must sift through to reach a diagnosis,” said John Reynders, PhD, Vice President of Data Sciences, Genomics, and Bioinformatics at Alexion. “This collaboration will help accelerate an accurate diagnosis for patients with genetic diseases, clarify available paths of intervention and provide hope to families.” Under the partnership, Alexion will share, research and further refine the SmartPanel, a platform developed by Alexion that personalizes and prioritizes suspected rare-disease genes from a patient's next-generation sequenced genome and specific clinical presentation. The Rady Children’s Institute for Genomic Medicine is evaluating the SmartPanel in research to establish positive predictive value, enable electronic medical record (EMR) integration for rapid phenotypic extraction and assess overall patient outcomes via earlier diagnosis. Both organizations will collaborate on patient and disease characterization, algorithmic modules and scalability with a shared goal of contributing core capabilities to the open source community to accelerate research in the challenging area of pediatric rare-disease diagnosis. The institute is leading the way in advancing precision healthcare for infants and children through genomic and systems medicine research. Discoveries at the Institute are enabling rapid diagnosis and targeted treatment of critically ill newborns and pediatric patients at Rady Children’s Hospital-San Diego. The vision is to develop an integrated process that can be expanded to deliver precision pediatric medicine at children’s hospitals in California, the nation and the world. RCIGM is a division of Rady Children’s Hospital-San Diego. Learn more at www.RadyGenomics.org. Rady Children’s Hospital-San Diego is a 551-bed pediatric care facility providing the largest source of comprehensive pediatric medical services in San Diego, Southern Riverside and Imperial counties. Rady Children’s is the only hospital in the San Diego area dedicated exclusively to pediatric healthcare and is the region’s only designated pediatric trauma center. In June 2016, U.S. News & World Report ranked Rady Children’s among the best children’s hospitals in the nation in nine pediatric specialties. Rady Children’s is a nonprofit organization that relies on donations to support its mission. For more information, visit www.rchsd.org and find us on Facebook, Twitter and Vimeo. Alexion is a global biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and delivering life-transforming therapies for patients with devastating and rare disorders. Alexion is the global leader in complement inhibition and has developed and commercializes the first and only approved complement inhibitor to treat patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), two life-threatening ultra-rare disorders. In addition, Alexion’s metabolic franchise includes two highly innovative enzyme replacement therapies for patients with life-threatening and ultra-rare disorders, hypophosphatasia (HPP) and lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D). Alexion is advancing its rare disease pipeline with highly innovative product candidates in multiple therapeutic areas. This press release and further information about Alexion can be found at: www.alexion.com.


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: marketersmedia.com

Wiseguyreports.Com Adds “Bioinformatics -Market Demand, Growth, Opportunities and Analysis of Top Key Player Forecast To 2022” To Its Research Database This report studies the global Bioinformatics market, analyzes and research the Bioinformatics development status and forecast in USA, EU, Japan, China, India and Southeast Asia. This report focuses on the top players in global market, like Market segment by Type, Bioinformatics can be split into Knowledge Management Tools Bioinformatics Platforms Bioinformatics Services Market segment by Application, Bioinformatics can be split into Genomics Chemoinformatics and Drug Design Proteomics Transcriptomics Metabolomics Molecular Phylogenetics Others Global Bioinformatics Market by Players, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022 1 Industry Overview 1.1 Bioinformatics Market Overview 1.1.1 Bioinformatics Product Scope 1.1.2 Market Status and Outlook 1.2 Global Bioinformatics Market Size and Analysis by Regions 1.2.1 USA 1.2.2 EU 1.2.3 Japan 1.2.4 China 1.2.5 India 1.2.6 Southeast Asia 1.3 Digital Out of Home Market by Type 1.3.1 Knowledge Management Tools 1.3.2 Bioinformatics Platforms 1.3.3 Bioinformatics Services 1.4 Bioinformatics Market by End Users/Application 3 Company (Top Players) Profiles 3.1 DNAnexus 3.1.1 Company Profile 3.1.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.1.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.1.4 Bioinformatics Revenue (Value) 2012-2017 3.1.5 Recent Developments 3.2 ID Business Solutions 3.2.1 Company Profile 3.2.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.2.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.2.4 Bioinformatics Revenue (Value) 2012-2017 3.2.5 Recent Developments 3.3 Perkinelmer 3.3.1 Company Profile 3.3.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.3.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.3.4 Bioinformatics Revenue (Value) 2012-2017 3.3.5 Recent Developments 3.4 Waters Corporation 3.4.1 Company Profile 3.4.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.4.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.4.4 Bioinformatics Revenue (Value) 2012-2017 3.4.5 Recent Developments 3.5 Illumina 3.5.1 Company Profile 3.5.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.5.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.5.4 Bioinformatics Revenue (Value) 2012-2017 3.5.5 Recent Developments 3.6 Thermo Fisher Scientific 3.6.1 Company Profile 3.6.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.6.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.6.4 Bioinformatics Revenue (Value) 2012-2017 3.6.5 Recent Developments 3.7 Qiagen 3.7.1 Company Profile 3.7.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.7.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.7.4 Bioinformatics Revenue (Value) 2012-2017 3.7.5 Recent Developments 3.8 Agilent Technologies 3.8.1 Company Profile 3.8.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.8.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.8.4 Bioinformatics Revenue (Value) 2012-2017 3.8.5 Recent Developments 3.9 Applied Biological Materials (ABM) 3.9.1 Company Profile 3.9.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.9.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.9.4 Bioinformatics Revenue (Value) 2012-2017 3.9.5 Recent Developments 3.10 Biomax Informatics 3.10.1 Company Profile 3.10.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.10.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.10.4 Bioinformatics Revenue (Value) 2012-2017 3.10.5 Recent Developments ... For more information, please visit https://www.wiseguyreports.com/sample-request/1203914-global-bioinformatics-market-by-players-regions-type-and-application-forecast-to


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.nature.com

Life scientists urgently need early training in bioinformatics skills. That is the finding of surveys by the Global Organisation for Bioinformatics Learning, Education and Training (GOBLET; http://mygoblet.org). Bioinformatics is now intrinsic to life-sciences research, but the skills necessary for basic data stewardship are still taught in only some 25% of education programmes, creating an unacceptable chasm between theory and practice. Almost 500 researchers worldwide, ranging from graduate students to career scientists, responded to the 2014 GOBLET survey on the extent of their bioinformatics training (see et al. Preprint at bioRxiv http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/098996; 2017). The results revealed a high demand for short courses that could improve researchers' expertise in data analysis and interpretation, ideally delivered before they embark on designing experiments and collecting data. Universities must invest in degree-level education in bioinformatics, to ensure that wet-lab teams comprise computationally minded biologists who can take on programming and the statistical components of data analyses. Meanwhile, the GOBLET foundation is working to enlarge the international community of bioinformatics trainers and training resources, to help prevent research progress being impeded as a result of gaps in researchers' bioinformatics skills (see Nature 520, 151–152; 2015).


This report describes and evaluates the proteomic technologies that will play an important role in drug discovery, molecular diagnostics and practice of medicine in the post-genomic era - the first decade of the 21st century. Proteomics will play an important role in medicine of the future which will be personalized and will combine diagnostics with therapeutics. Important areas of application include cancer (oncoproteomics) and neurological disorders (neuroproteomics). The text is supplemented with 44 tables, 29 figures and over 500 selected references from the literature. The number of companies involved in proteomics has increased remarkably during the past few years. More than 300 companies have been identified to be involved in proteomics and 224 of these are profiled in the report with 456 collaborations. The markets for proteomic technologies are difficult to estimate as they are not distinct but overlap with those of genomics, gene expression, high throughput screening, drug discovery and molecular diagnostics. Markets for proteomic technologies are analyzed for the year 2016 and are projected to years 2021 and 2026. The largest expansion will be in bioinformatics and protein biochip technologies. Important areas of application are cancer and neurological disorders. Key Topics Covered: Part I: Technologies & Markets Executive Summary 1. Basics of Proteomics 2. Proteomic Technologies 3. Protein Biochip Technology 4. Bioinformatics in Relation to Proteomics 5. Research in Proteomics 6. Pharmaceutical Applications of Proteomics 7. Application of Proteomics in Human Healthcare 8. Oncoproteomics 9. Neuroproteomics 10. Proteomics Markets 11. Future of Proteomics 12. References Part II: Companies 13. Nanobiotech Companies For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/4t4kv9/proteomics To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-proteomics-technologies-markets-and-companies-report-2017-2026-300-companies-identified-in-proteomics---224-profiles-with-456-collaborations---research-and-markets-300443421.html


News Article | April 21, 2017
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

Unless your career wardrobe consists of multiple white lab coats and your office has a cache of test tubes, you probably don't remember where you were when it was announced that the human genome had been sequenced. But, if you know that you can now dish out $100 to map your ancestral migration through history, the term "DNA" may roll off the tongue like the ABCs. The surge in genetic research and its increasing acceptance in the general public bodes well for health, agriculture and natural resources discoveries -- not to mention genealogy enthusiasts. This has scientists scampering to keep up with the technology, according to Dr. Charlie Johnson, director of the Genomics and Bioinformatics at Texas A&M AgriLife Research in College Station. It's been a productive 20-plus years since two bacterial genomes were first sequenced in 1995, according to the National Institutes of Health-National Center for Biotechnology Information. Almost 125,000 organisms have been sequenced, including -- to help pinpoint your ancestry -- the human genome in 2003. "The technology is relatively new. Before 2007, sequencing was very difficult, slow and laborious," Johnson said. "The human genome project, for example, started in 1990 and took 13 years to complete at a cost of about $3 billion." Texas A&M AgriLife Genomics and Bioinformatics Service in College Station has a central core of the latest equipment and experienced genomics technology scientists to support researchers in a cost-effective, efficient way throughout the Texas A&M University System. Once science got a grasp of the technology, however, researchers from agriculture to zoology clearly saw how peering into the innermost level of an organism's existence might help address issues such as disease, drought and pestilence. One problem, however, was cost, Johnson noted. "The kind of instruments needed to do sequencing are not affordable for a single lab to own," he said. "On the average, they cost about $1 million apiece. And it would be hard for any one investigator to generate enough research work to justify that investment." AgriLife Research, with its extensive scientific network across Texas, envisioned a bigger picture. In 2010, the agency hired Johnson to establish a central core of equipment and a set of experienced genomics technology scientists who could support researchers in a cost-effective, efficient way. Even more, they provide their expertise to scientists throughout the Texas A&M University System. "Our reputation for scientific excellence and high-quality data has led to collaborations with scientists around the world, including groups in 35 countries," Johnson noted. "Beginning in 2009 when the first next generation sequencing system was purchased and over the last eight years, AgriLife has continued to keep pace with a technology that is changing so fast. The cost of sequencing has dropped from $3 billion for the first human genome to less than $1,000 today and is expected to dip below $100 in the coming years." This month, the center will put in place an Illumina NovaSeq 6000, a machine Johnson said can yield the equivalent of 48 human-sized genomes in less than two days. This will significantly cut costs. "Texas A&M AgriLife is one of the first academic institutions to have access to this technology," Johnson said. "This is the right tool at the right time to face this new era of big agri-genomics, and we are thrilled to be part of it." In essence, like one's cellphone, DNA sequencing technology is ever-evolving at a frantic pace, he said. "If you are not constantly upgrading, you quickly fall behind. We work hard to get these new machines so we can continue to provide the highest quality data using the latest genomic technologies to give our collaborators the biggest bang for the buck," he said.


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

VIDEO:  Scientists and physicians at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, working with colleagues at the U.S. Navy Medical Research Center (NMRC), Texas A&M University, a San Diego-based biotech... view more Scientists and physicians at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, working with colleagues at the U.S. Navy Medical Research Center - Biological Defense Research Directorate (NMRC-BDRD), Texas A&M University, a San Diego-based biotech and elsewhere, have successfully used an experimental therapy involving bacteriophages -- viruses that target and consume specific strains of bacteria -- to treat a patient near death from a multidrug-resistant bacterium. The therapeutic approach, which has been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal, is scheduled to be featured in an oral presentation tomorrow at the Centennial Celebration of Bacteriophage Research at the Institute Pasteur in Paris by Biswajit Biswas, MD, one of the case study's co-authors and chief of the phage division in the Department ?Genomics and Bioinformatics at NMRC-BDRD. April 27 is Human Phage Therapy Day, designated to mark 100 years of clinical research launched by Felix d'Herelle, a French-Canadian microbiologist at Institute Pasteur who is credited with co-discovering bacteriophages with British bacteriologist Frederick Twort. Authors say the case study could be another catalyst to developing new remedies to the growing global threat of antimicrobial resistance, which the World Health Organization estimates will kill at least 50 million people per year by 2050. Based on the success of this case, in collaboration with NMRC, UC San Diego is exploring options for a new center to advance research and development of bacteriophage-based therapies. "When it became clear that every antibiotic had failed, that Tom could die, we sought an emergency investigational new drug application from the FDA to try bacteriophages," said lead author Robert "Chip" Schooley, MD, professor of medicine, chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases in the UC San Diego School of Medicine and primary physician on the case. "To our knowledge, he is the first patient in the United States with an overwhelming, systemic infection to be treated with this approach using intravenous bacteriophages. From being in a coma near death, he's recovered well enough to go back to work. Of course, this is just one patient, one case. We don't yet fully understand the potential -- and limitations -- of clinical bacteriophage therapy, but it's an unprecedented and remarkable story, and given the global health threat of multidrug-resistant organisms, one that we should pursue." The story begins in late-2015. Tom Patterson, PhD, a 69-year-old professor in the Department of Psychiatry at UC San Diego School of Medicine, and his wife, Steffanie Strathdee, PhD, chief of the Division of Global Public Health in the Department of Medicine, were spending the Thanksgiving holiday in Egypt when Patterson became ill, wracked by abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting and a racing heartbeat. Local doctors diagnosed pancreatitis -- inflammation of the pancreas -- but standard treatment didn't help. Patterson's condition worsened and he was medevacked to Frankfurt, Germany Dec. 3, 2015, where doctors discovered a pancreatic pseudocyst, a collection of fluid around the pancreas. The fluid was drained and the contents cultured. Patterson had become infected with a multidrug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii, an opportunistic and often deadly pathogen. The bacterium has proved particularly problematic in hospital settings and in the Middle East, with many injured veterans and soldiers returning to the U.S. with persistent infections. Initially, the only antibiotics with any effect proved to be a combination of meropenem, tigecycline and colistin, a drug of last resort because it often causes kidney damage, among other side effects. Patterson's condition stabilized sufficiently for him to be airlifted Dec. 12, 2015, from Germany to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at Thornton Hospital at UC San Diego Health. Upon arrival, it was discovered that his bacterial isolate had become resistant to all of these antibiotics. At Thornton Hospital, now part of Jacobs Medical Center, Patterson began to recover, moving from the ICU to a regular ward. But the day before scheduled discharge to a long-term acute care facility, an internal drain designed to localize his infection and keep it at bay slipped, spilling bacteria into his abdomen and bloodstream. Patterson immediately experienced septic shock. His heart began racing. He could not breathe. He became feverish and would subsequently fall into a coma that would last for most of the next two months. He was, in effect, dying. "That's a period of my life I don't remember," recalled Patterson. "There was so much pain that it's almost beyond your ability to cope. I'm happy not to remember." Strathdee, his wife, is no stranger to the terrors of disease. As an infectious disease epidemiologist and director of the UC San Diego Global Health Institute, she has worked around the world, from India to Afghanistan to Mexico, trying to lower HIV infection and mortality rates. "There came a point when he was getting weaker and weaker, and I didn't want to lose him. I wasn't ready to let him go and so I held his hand and said, 'Honey, they're doing everything they can and there's nothing that can kill this bug, so if you want to fight, you need to fight. Do you want me to find some alternative therapies? We can leave no stone unturned.'" Tom recalled the moment: "I vaguely remember you saying, 'do you want me to try or not because it's going to be a tough time and it's not certain that it will work.' I remember squeezing your hand, but it was just a flash in the whole process." Strathdee began doing research. A colleague mentioned a friend had traveled to Tblisi, Georgia to undergo "phage therapy" for a difficult condition and had been "miraculously cured." Strathdee had learned of bacteriophages while she was a student, but they were not part of mainstream medical doctrine. She turned to strangers in the phage research community and to her colleague Chip Schooley for help. Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. It's estimated there are more than 1031 bacteriophages on the planet. That's ten million trillion trillion, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined. Each is evolved to infect a specific bacterial host in order to replicate -- without affecting other cells in an organism. The idea of using them therapeutically is not new. Described a century ago, phage therapy was popular in the 1920s and 1930s to treat multiple types of infections and conditions, but results were inconsistent and lacked scientific validation. The emergence of antibiotics in the 1940s pushed phage therapy aside, except in parts of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, where it remained a topic of active research. With dwindling options, Strathdee, Schooley and colleagues went looking for help. They found many researchers willing to help. Three teams possessed suitable phages that were active against Patterson's particular bacterial infection: the Biological Defense Research Directorate of the NMRC in Frederick, MD; the Center for Phage Technology at Texas A&M University; and AmpliPhi, a San Diego-based biotech company specializing in bacteriophage-based therapies. A research team at San Diego State University, headed by microbial ecologist Forest Rowher, PhD, purified the phage samples for clinical use. With emergency approval from the Food and Drug Administration, each source provided phage strains to UC San Diego doctors to treat Patterson, with no guarantee that any of the strains would actually work. "That's one of the remarkable things to come out of this whole experience," said Schooley, "the incredible and rapid collaboration among folks scattered around the world. It was a desperate time and people really stepped up." Phage therapy is typically administered topically or orally. In Patterson's case, the phages were introduced through catheters into his abdominal cavity and intravenously to address a broader, systemic infection, which had not been done in the antibiotic era in the U.S. "That makes them more effective," said Schooley. "The action is at the interface of the patient and the organism." With tweaking and adjustments -- his physicians were learning on the fly -- Patterson began to improve. He emerged from his coma within three days of the start of IV phage therapy. "Tom woke up, turned to his daughter and said, 'I love you'," recalled Schooley. Patterson was soon weaned off of the respirator and blood pressure drugs. "As a treating doctor, it was a challenge," said Schooley. "Usually you know what the dosage should be, how often to treat. Improving vital signs is a good way to know that you're progressing, but when you're doing it for the first time, you don't have anything to compare it to. "A lot was really worked out as we went along, combining previous literature, our own intuition about how these phages would circulate and work and advice from people who had been thinking about this for a long time." By the time Patterson was airlifted to Thornton Hospital at UC San Diego Health, he was in dire straits. His abdomen had swelled, distended by the pseudocyst teeming with multi-drug resistant A. baumaunnii. His white blood cell count had soared -- a sign of rampant infection. Doctors tried various combinations of antibiotics. He developed respiratory failure and hypotension that required ventilation and recurrent emergency treatment. He became increasingly delirious. When he lapsed into a coma in mid-January, he was essentially being kept alive on life support. Eventually Schooley said there were no antimicrobial agents left to try. Strathdee recalled colleagues wondering aloud if she was prepared for Tom to die. She wasn't. Bacteriophage therapy began March 15, 2016, with a cocktail of four phages provided by Texas A&M and the San Diego-based biotech company AmpliPhi, pumped through catheters into the pseudocyst. If the treatment didn't kill him, Patterson's medical team planned to inject the Navy's phages intravenously, flooding his bloodstream to reach the infection raging throughout his body. As far as Patterson's doctors knew, such treatment had never been tried before. On March 17, the Navy phages were injected intravenously. There were fears about endotoxins naturally produced by the phages. No one knew what to expect, but Patterson tolerated the treatment well -- indeed there were no adverse side effects -- and on March 19, he suddenly awoke and recognized his daughter. "One of NMRC's goals with respect to bacteriophage science has been providing military members infected with multidrug-resistant organisms additional antimicrobial options so we were experienced and well-positioned to provide an effective phage cocktail for Dr. Patterson," said Theron Hamilton, PhD, head of Genomics and Bioinformatics at the Navy's Biological Defense Research Directorate. "Obviously, we are thrilled with the outcome and hope this case increases awareness of the possibility of applying phage therapy to tough cases like this one." Subsequent treatment, however, would not be easy. The learning curve was steep and unmarked. There were bouts of sepsis -- a life-threatening complication caused by massive infection. Despite improvement, Patterson's condition remained precarious. Doctors discovered that the bacterium eventually developed resistance to the phages, what Schooley would characterize as "the recurring Darwinian dance," but the team compensated by continually tweaking treatment with new phage strains -- some that the NMRC had derived from sewage -- and antibiotics. In early May, Patterson was taken off of antibiotics. After June 6, there was no evidence of A. baumannii in his body. He was discharged home August 12, 2016. Recovery has not been entirely smooth and steady. There have been setbacks unrelated to the phages. A formerly robust man, Patterson had been fed intravenously for months in the hospital and had lost 100 pounds, much of it muscle. He has required intense physical rehabilitation to regain strength and movement. "It's not like in the movies where you just wake up from a coma, look around and pop out of bed," Patterson said. "You discover that your body doesn't work right anymore." He said he could feel parts of his brain coming back alive. Nonetheless, Patterson described the experience as miraculous. Even comatose, when he often wrestled with imagined demons, he recalled hearing and recognizing voices and realizing that beyond his darkness, there was life and hope. And beyond him, he hopes his experience will translate into new treatments for others: "The phage therapy has really been a miracle for me, and for what it might mean that millions of people who may be cured from multidrug-resistant infections in the future. It's been sort of a privilege." Schooley said Patterson was lucky. His wife was a trained scientist and determined to find a remedy -- and they both worked at UC San Diego School of Medicine: "He was fortunate to be in a place that had all of the resources and courage necessary to support him while this innovative therapy was developed, which was essentially a home brew cocktail of viruses to be given to a desperately ill individual. I think a lot of other places would have hesitated. I think the response that he had clinically has been very gratifying and speaks to the strength of a multidimensional medical center with all of the pieces you need." Still, Schooley said any broad, future approved application of phage therapy faces fundamental challenges unlike past treatments. "What the FDA is used to saying is 'This is an antibiotic. We know what its structure is and how you can give it to multiple people.' With bacteriophage therapy, the FDA would be dealing with an approach in which doctors would have to develop phage cocktails for each patient tailored to their infecting organisms. It's the ultimate personalized medicine." The good news, Schooley said, is that new molecular tools, robotics and other advances make personalized medicine possible in a way it wasn't 10 or 15 years ago. "Then, it would have been impossible to contemplate. There's still much research to be done, but I think there are going to be a lot of clinical applications where this approach may be very beneficial to patients." Derived from the Greek words meaning "bacteria eater," bacteriophages are ancient and abundant -- found on land, in water, within any form of life harboring their target. According to Rowher at San Diego State University and colleagues in their book Life in Our Phage World, phages cause a trillion trillion successful infections per second and destroy up to 40 percent of all bacterial cells in the ocean every day. Thousands of varieties of phage exist, each evolved to infect only one type or a few types of bacteria. Like other viruses, they cannot replicate by themselves, but must commandeer the reproductive machinery of bacteria. To do so, they attach to a bacterium and insert their genetic material. Lytic phages then destroy the cell, splitting it open to release new viral particles to continue the process. As such, phages could be considered the only "drug"' capable of multiplying; when their job is done, they are excreted by the body.


News Article | April 26, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Scientists and physicians at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, working with colleagues at the U.S. Navy Medical Research Center -- Biological Defense Research Directorate (NMRC-BDRD), Texas A&M University, a San Diego-based biotech and elsewhere, have successfully used an experimental therapy involving bacteriophages -- viruses that target and consume specific strains of bacteria -- to treat a patient near death from a multidrug-resistant bacterium. The therapeutic approach, which has been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal, is scheduled to be featured in an oral presentation at the Centennial Celebration of Bacteriophage Research at the Institute Pasteur in Paris by Biswajit Biswas, MD, one of the case study's co-authors and chief of the phage division in the Department ?Genomics and Bioinformatics at NMRC-BDRD. April 27 is Human Phage Therapy Day, designated to mark 100 years of clinical research launched by Felix d'Herelle, a French microbiologist at Institute Pasteur who is credited with co-discovering bacteriophages with British bacteriologist Frederick Twort. Authors say the case study could be another catalyst to developing new remedies to the growing global threat of antimicrobial resistance, which the World Health Organization estimates will kill at least 50 million people per year by 2050. Based on the success of this case, in collaboration with NMRC, UC San Diego is exploring options for a new center to advance research and development of bacteriophage-based therapies. "When it became clear that every antibiotic had failed, that Tom could die, we sought an emergency investigational new drug application from the FDA to try bacteriophages," said lead author Robert "Chip" Schooley, MD, professor of medicine, chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases in the UC San Diego School of Medicine and primary physician on the case. "To our knowledge, he is the first patient in the United States with an overwhelming, systemic infection to be treated with this approach using intravenous bacteriophages. From being in a coma near death, he's recovered well enough to go back to work. Of course, this is just one patient, one case. We don't yet fully understand the potential -- and limitations -- of clinical bacteriophage therapy, but it's an unprecedented and remarkable story, and given the global health threat of multidrug-resistant organisms, one that we should pursue." The story begins in late-2015. Tom Patterson, PhD, a 69-year-old professor in the Department of Psychiatry at UC San Diego School of Medicine, and his wife, Steffanie Strathdee, PhD, chief of the Division of Global Public Health in the Department of Medicine, were spending the Thanksgiving holiday in Egypt when Patterson became ill, wracked by abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting and a racing heartbeat. Local doctors diagnosed pancreatitis -- inflammation of the pancreas -- but standard treatment didn't help. Patterson's condition worsened and he was medevacked to Frankfurt, Germany Dec. 3, 2015, where doctors discovered a pancreatic pseudocyst, a collection of fluid around the pancreas. The fluid was drained and the contents cultured. Patterson had become infected with a multidrug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii, an opportunistic and often deadly pathogen. The bacterium has proved particularly problematic in hospital settings and in the Middle East, with many injured veterans and soldiers returning to the U.S. with persistent infections. Initially, the only antibiotics with any effect proved to be a combination of meropenem, tigecycline and colistin, a drug of last resort because it often causes kidney damage, among other side effects. Patterson's condition stabilized sufficiently for him to be airlifted Dec. 12, 2015, from Germany to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at Thornton Hospital at UC San Diego Health. Upon arrival, it was discovered that his bacterial isolate had become resistant to all of these antibiotics. At Thornton Hospital, now part of Jacobs Medical Center, Patterson began to recover, moving from the ICU to a regular ward. But the day before scheduled discharge to a long-term acute care facility, an internal drain designed to localize his infection and keep it at bay slipped, spilling bacteria into his abdomen and bloodstream. Patterson immediately experienced septic shock. His heart began racing. He could not breathe. He became feverish and would subsequently fall into a coma that would last for most of the next two months. He was, in effect, dying. "That's a period of my life I don't remember," recalled Patterson. "There was so much pain that it's almost beyond your ability to cope. I'm happy not to remember." Strathdee, his wife, is no stranger to the terrors of disease. As an infectious disease epidemiologist and director of the UC San Diego Global Health Institute, she has worked around the world, from India to Afghanistan to Mexico, trying to lower HIV infection and mortality rates. "There came a point when he was getting weaker and weaker, and I didn't want to lose him. I wasn't ready to let him go and so I held his hand and said, 'Honey, they're doing everything they can and there's nothing that can kill this bug, so if you want to fight, you need to fight. Do you want me to find some alternative therapies? We can leave no stone unturned.'" Tom recalled the moment: "I vaguely remember you saying, 'do you want me to try or not because it's going to be a tough time and it's not certain that it will work.' I remember squeezing your hand, but it was just a flash in the whole process." Strathdee began doing research. A colleague mentioned a friend had traveled to Tblisi, Georgia to undergo "phage therapy" for a difficult condition and had been "miraculously cured." Strathdee had learned of bacteriophages while she was a student, but they were not part of mainstream medical doctrine. She turned to strangers in the phage research community and to her colleague Chip Schooley for help. Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. It's estimated there are more than 1031 bacteriophages on the planet. That's ten million trillion trillion, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined. Each is evolved to infect a specific bacterial host in order to replicate -- without affecting other cells in an organism. The idea of using them therapeutically is not new. Described a century ago, phage therapy was popular in the 1920s and 1930s to treat multiple types of infections and conditions, but results were inconsistent and lacked scientific validation. The emergence of antibiotics in the 1940s pushed phage therapy aside, except in parts of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, where it remained a topic of active research. With dwindling options, Strathdee, Schooley and colleagues went looking for help. They found many researchers willing to help. Three teams possessed suitable phages that were active against Patterson's particular bacterial infection: the Biological Defense Research Directorate of the NMRC in Frederick, MD; the Center for Phage Technology at Texas A&M University; and AmpliPhi, a San Diego-based biotech company specializing in bacteriophage-based therapies. A research team at San Diego State University, headed by microbial ecologist Forest Rowher, PhD, purified the phage samples for clinical use. With emergency approval from the Food and Drug Administration, each source provided phage strains to UC San Diego doctors to treat Patterson, with no guarantee that any of the strains would actually work. "That's one of the remarkable things to come out of this whole experience," said Schooley, "the incredible and rapid collaboration among folks scattered around the world. It was a desperate time and people really stepped up." Phage therapy is typically administered topically or orally. In Patterson's case, the phages were introduced through catheters into his abdominal cavity and intravenously to address a broader, systemic infection, which had not been done in the antibiotic era in the U.S. "That makes them more effective," said Schooley. "The action is at the interface of the patient and the organism." With tweaking and adjustments -- his physicians were learning on the fly -- Patterson began to improve. He emerged from his coma within three days of the start of IV phage therapy. "Tom woke up, turned to his daughter and said, 'I love you'," recalled Schooley. Patterson was soon weaned off of the respirator and blood pressure drugs. "As a treating doctor, it was a challenge," said Schooley. "Usually you know what the dosage should be, how often to treat. Improving vital signs is a good way to know that you're progressing, but when you're doing it for the first time, you don't have anything to compare it to. "A lot was really worked out as we went along, combining previous literature, our own intuition about how these phages would circulate and work and advice from people who had been thinking about this for a long time." By the time Patterson was airlifted to Thornton Hospital at UC San Diego Health, he was in dire straits. His abdomen had swelled, distended by the pseudocyst teeming with multi-drug resistant A. baumaunnii. His white blood cell count had soared -- a sign of rampant infection. Doctors tried various combinations of antibiotics. He developed respiratory failure and hypotension that required ventilation and recurrent emergency treatment. He became increasingly delirious. When he lapsed into a coma in mid-January, he was essentially being kept alive on life support. Eventually Schooley said there were no antimicrobial agents left to try. Strathdee recalled colleagues wondering aloud if she was prepared for Tom to die. She wasn't. Bacteriophage therapy began March 15, 2016, with a cocktail of four phages provided by Texas A&M and the San Diego-based biotech company AmpliPhi, pumped through catheters into the pseudocyst. If the treatment didn't kill him, Patterson's medical team planned to inject the Navy's phages intravenously, flooding his bloodstream to reach the infection raging throughout his body. As far as Patterson's doctors knew, such treatment had never been tried before. On March 17, the Navy phages were injected intravenously. There were fears about endotoxins naturally produced by the phages. No one knew what to expect, but Patterson tolerated the treatment well -- indeed there were no adverse side effects -- and on March 19, he suddenly awoke and recognized his daughter. "One of NMRC's goals with respect to bacteriophage science has been providing military members infected with multidrug-resistant organisms additional antimicrobial options so we were experienced and well-positioned to provide an effective phage cocktail for Dr. Patterson," said Theron Hamilton, PhD, head of Genomics and Bioinformatics at the Navy's Biological Defense Research Directorate. "Obviously, we are thrilled with the outcome and hope this case increases awareness of the possibility of applying phage therapy to tough cases like this one." Subsequent treatment, however, would not be easy. The learning curve was steep and unmarked. There were bouts of sepsis -- a life-threatening complication caused by massive infection. Despite improvement, Patterson's condition remained precarious. Doctors discovered that the bacterium eventually developed resistance to the phages, what Schooley would characterize as "the recurring Darwinian dance," but the team compensated by continually tweaking treatment with new phage strains -- some that the NMRC had derived from sewage -- and antibiotics. In early May, Patterson was taken off of antibiotics. After June 6, there was no evidence of A. baumannii in his body. He was discharged home August 12, 2016. Recovery has not been entirely smooth and steady. There have been setbacks unrelated to the phages. A formerly robust man, Patterson had been fed intravenously for months in the hospital and had lost 100 pounds, much of it muscle. He has required intense physical rehabilitation to regain strength and movement. "It's not like in the movies where you just wake up from a coma, look around and pop out of bed," Patterson said. "You discover that your body doesn't work right anymore." He said he could feel parts of his brain coming back alive. Nonetheless, Patterson described the experience as miraculous. Even comatose, when he often wrestled with imagined demons, he recalled hearing and recognizing voices and realizing that beyond his darkness, there was life and hope. And beyond him, he hopes his experience will translate into new treatments for others: "The phage therapy has really been a miracle for me, and for what it might mean that millions of people who may be cured from multidrug-resistant infections in the future. It's been sort of a privilege." Schooley said Patterson was lucky. His wife was a trained scientist and determined to find a remedy -- and they both worked at UC San Diego School of Medicine: "He was fortunate to be in a place that had all of the resources and courage necessary to support him while this innovative therapy was developed, which was essentially a home brew cocktail of viruses to be given to a desperately ill individual. I think a lot of other places would have hesitated. I think the response that he had clinically has been very gratifying and speaks to the strength of a multidimensional medical center with all of the pieces you need." Still, Schooley said any broad, future approved application of phage therapy faces fundamental challenges unlike past treatments. "What the FDA is used to saying is 'This is an antibiotic. We know what its structure is and how you can give it to multiple people.' With bacteriophage therapy, the FDA would be dealing with an approach in which doctors would have to develop phage cocktails for each patient tailored to their infecting organisms. It's the ultimate personalized medicine." The good news, Schooley said, is that new molecular tools, robotics and other advances make personalized medicine possible in a way it wasn't 10 or 15 years ago. "Then, it would have been impossible to contemplate. There's still much research to be done, but I think there are going to be a lot of clinical applications where this approach may be very beneficial to patients." Derived from the Greek words meaning "bacteria eater," bacteriophages are ancient and abundant -- found on land, in water, within any form of life harboring their target. According to Rowher at San Diego State University and colleagues in their book Life in Our Phage World, phages cause a trillion trillion successful infections per second and destroy up to 40 percent of all bacterial cells in the ocean every day. Thousands of varieties of phage exist, each evolved to infect only one type or a few types of bacteria. Like other viruses, they cannot replicate by themselves, but must commandeer the reproductive machinery of bacteria. To do so, they attach to a bacterium and insert their genetic material. Lytic phages then destroy the cell, splitting it open to release new viral particles to continue the process. As such, phages could be considered the only "drug"' capable of multiplying; when their job is done, they are excreted by the body.

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