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Cherry Hill, NJ, United States

Duzyj C.M.,Yale University | Paidas M.J.,Yale University | Jebailey L.,Thomson Reuters | Huang J.S.,Ohio State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders | Year: 2014

Background: Intimate embryo-maternal interaction is paramount for pregnancy success post-implantation. The embryo follows a specific developmental timeline starting with neural system, dependent on endogenous and decidual factors. Beyond altered genetics/epigenetics, post-natal diseases may initiate at prenatal/neonatal, post-natal period, or through a continuum. Preimplantation factor (PIF) secreted by viable embryos promotes implantation and trophoblast invasion. Synthetic PIF reverses neuroinflammation in non-pregnant models. PIF targets embryo proteins that protect against oxidative stress and protein misfolding. We report of PIF's embryotrophic role and potential to prevent developmental disorders by regulating uterine milieu at implantation and first trimester. Methods: PIF's effect on human implantation (human endometrial stromal cells (HESC)) and first-trimester decidua cultures (FTDC) was examined, by global gene expression (Affymetrix), disease-biomarkers ranking (GeneGo), neuro-specific genes (Ingenuity) and proteins (mass-spectrometry). PIF co-cultured epidermal growth factor (EGF) in both HESC and FTDC (Affymetrix) was evaluated. Results: In HESC, PIF promotes neural differentiation and transmission genes (TLX2, EPHA10) while inhibiting retinoic acid receptor gene, which arrests growth. PIF promotes axon guidance and downregulates EGF-dependent neuroregulin signaling. In FTDC, PIF promotes bone morphogenetic protein pathway (SMAD1, 53-fold) and axonal guidance genes (EPH5) while inhibiting PPP2R2C, negative cell-growth regulator, involved in Alzheimer's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In HESC, PIF affects angiotensin via beta-arrestin, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), notch, BMP, and wingless-int (WNT) signaling pathways that promote neurogenesis involved in childhood neurodevelopmental diseases - autism and also affected epithelial-mesenchymal transition involved in neuromuscular disorders. In FTDC, PIF upregulates neural development and hormone signaling, while downregulating genes protecting against xenobiotic response leading to connective tissue disorders. In both HESC and FTDC, PIF affects neural development and transmission pathways. In HESC interactome, PIF promotes FUS gene, which controls genome integrity, while in FTDC, PIF upregulates STAT3 critical transcription signal. EGF abolished PIF's effect on HESC, decreasing metalloproteinase and prolactin receptor genes, thereby interfering with decidualization, while in FTDC, EGF co-cultured with PIF reduced ZHX2, gene that regulates neural AFP secretion. Conclusions: PIF promotes decidual trophic genes and proteins to regulate neural development. By regulating the uterine milieu, PIF may decrease embryo vulnerability to post-natal neurodevelopmental disorders. Examination of PIF-based intervention strategies used during embryogenesis to improve pregnancy prognosis and reduce post-natal vulnerability is clearly in order. © 2014 Duzyj et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Barnea E.R.,SIEP Society for the Investigation of Early Pregnancy | Barnea E.R.,Bioincept | Barnea E.R.,Johnson University | Kirk D.,PharmMedInfo | Paidas M.J.,Yale University
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Background: Viable embryos secrete preimplantation factor (PIF), a peptide that has autocrine effects where levels correlate with cultured embryos development. sPIF (PIF synthetic analog) promotes implantation by regulating decidual-cells immunity, adhesion, apoptosis and enhances trophoblastic cell invasion. Herein sPIF priming effects on non-decidualized endometrium and decidualized-stroma are investigated, assessing elements critical for effective embryo-maternal cross-talk, prior to and at implantation.Methods: We tested sPIF effect on human non-pregnant endometrial epithelial and non-decidualized stroma α2β3 integrin expression (IHC and flow cytometry), comparing with scrambled PIF (PIFscr-control). We examined sPIF effect on decidualized non-pregnant human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) determining pro-inflammatory mediators expression and secretion (ELISA) and growth factors (GFs) expression (Affymetrix global gene array). We tested sPIF effect on HESC Phospho-kinases (BioPlex) and isolated kinases activity (FastKinase).Results: sPIF up-regulates α2β3 integrin expression in epithelial cells, (P < 0.05) while PIFscr had no effect. In contrast, in stromal cell cultures sPIF had no effect on the same. In HESC, sPIF up-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines; IL8, IL1β and IL6 expression. The major increase in GRO-α, ICAM-1 and MCP-3 expression is coupled with same ligands secretion (P < 0.05). sPIF modulates in HESC GFs expression: up-regulates amphiregulin and epiregulin- critical for implantation and enhances several fibroblast growth factors (FGF) relevant for decidual function. In contrast, sPIF down-regulates major pro-proliferative ligands, betacellulin and IGF1 expression. sPIF modulatory effect on GFs is exerted by down-regulating pro-proliferative phospho-activated MAPkinases, p-MEK1 and p-ERK (P < 0.01, P < 0.04, respectively). Stress-induced p-38-MAPK (P = 0.04) and c-Jun kinase signaling involved MAPK8IP2 (-2.1 fold) expression decreased which protects against reactive oxygen species. Although pro-inflammatory p-NFkB (P = 0.06) decrease was mild, its promoter TNFRS11 expression markedly (-25-fold) decreased. In contrast, anti-proliferative phosphatases PTPRZ1 and PPP2R2C expression increased.Conclusions: sPIF post-fertilization primes endometrial-epithelium, while during implantation creates a beneficial pro-inflammatory milieu. PIF acts by balancing decidual pro-implantation properties while controlling excessive pro-proliferative and inflammatory signals expression. Overall, PIF influences critical peri-implantation events in a sequential coordinated fashion which facilitates embryo implantation. © 2012 Barnea et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Bioincept | Date: 2015-07-09

A novel class of embryo derived peptides are described (Preimplantation factor) that were generated synthetically and were tested on peripheral blood immune cells and shown to block activated but not basal immunity, inhibiting cell proliferation and creating a T

Pre-implantation factor (PIF) may be used to treat intracellular damage. Aspects of the invention are directed to a method of treating intracellular damage comprising administering PIF to a subject in need thereof. Some aspects may be directed to methods of increasing cytokine secretion in response to intracellular damage comprising administering PIF to a subject in need thereof. The intracellular damage may be a result of a disease such as

The present invention relates to assay methods used for detecting the presence of PIF, and to PIF peptides identified using this assay. In particular, the present invention relates to flow cytometry assays for detecting PIF. It is based, at least in part, on the observation that flow cytometry using fluorescently labeled anti-lymphocyte and anti-platelet antibodies demonstrated an increase in rosette formation in the presence of PIF. It is further based on the observation that flow cytometry demonstrated that monoclonal antibody binding to CD2 decreased in the presence of PIF. The present invention further relates to PIF peptides which, when added to Jurkat cell cultures, have been observed to either (i) decrease binding of anti-CD2 antibody to Jurkat cells; (ii) increase expression of CD2 in Jurkat cells; or (iii) decrease Jurkat cell viability. In additional embodiments, the present invention provides for ELISA assays which detect PIF by determining the effect of a test sample on the binding of anti-CD2 antibody to a CD2 substrate.

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