Dunwell J.M.,University of Reading |
Wilkinson M.J.,Aberystwyth University |
Nelson S.,Sumatra Bioscience Pte Ltd. |
Wening S.,Bah Lias Research Station |
And 9 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2010
Background: Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1generation.Results: Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H) and doubled haploid (DH) palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences.Conclusions: This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest. © 2010 Dunwell et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Bado S.,Atominstitut Vienna |
Padilla-Alvarez R.,International Atomic Energy Agency |
Migliori A.,International Atomic Energy Agency |
Forster B.P.,Atominstitut Vienna |
And 5 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2016
The analytical performance of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques was assessed in the determination of fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr) in plant samples. The quality of the results - in terms of accuracy, associated uncertainty and correlation between the two methods - was evaluated with regard to their usability for compositional classification of different rice genotypes with known tolerance levels to salinity stress. Plant uptake of essential elements was explored by Principal Component Analysis, which illuminated patterns between treatments (salt and control treatments) and across the rice genotypes tested. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wening S.,Bah Lias Research Station |
Croxford A.E.,Aberystwyth University |
Croxford A.E.,University of Adelaide |
Ford C.S.,Aberystwyth University |
And 9 more authors.
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2012
Plant breeders constantly need to introduce desirable new alleles to refresh breeding stocks. This first requires an assessment of potential new sources of material and then identification of genotypes most able to augment existing stocks. Genetic distance analysis is widely used for both purposes, although it measures both haplotype diversity and novel allele abundance. Here, we present a more tailored approach to address these problems. Using oil palm as an exemplar, simple metrics of allelic and genetic richness, graphical genotyping and multivariate analysis were deployed to determine the overall value of Ghanaian germplasm to supplement Sumatra Bioscience (SumBio) breeding material. We next compared three methods to rank individuals. The first was based on multivariate genetic distance. However, we also developed two new systems: Global Allelic Divergence (GAD), based on novel allele abundance, and Genome Scan Allelic (GSA) divergence, which additionally considers genome context. Ghanaian material exhibited increased allelic richness, higher heterozygosity and a higher proportion of private alleles than extant SumBio breeding stocks. Graphical genotyping revealed Ghanaian material as allele-rich in genomic regions that were allele-poor in SumBio breeding stocks. Multivariate analysis showed a collective distinctness and increased variability of Ghanaian plants. Ranks of individuals varied between GSA, GAD and genetic distance. The GAD and GSA ranks correlated strongly with each other but only poorly with the genetic distance-based ranks. We conclude that GSA and GAD are superior ranking systems to identify individuals most likely to introduce valuable new alleles, whilst genetic distance analysis identifies individuals likely to require least backcrossing. © 2012 Association of Applied Biologists.
Forster B.P.,International Atomic Energy Agency |
Till B.J.,International Atomic Energy Agency |
Ghanim A.M.A.,International Atomic Energy Agency |
Huynh H.O.A.,International Atomic Energy Agency |
And 4 more authors.
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources | Year: 2014
The time to develop new cultivars and introduce them into cultivation is an issue of major importance in plant breeding. This is because plant breeders have an urgent need to help provide solutions to feed a growing world population, while in parallel, time savings are linked to profitability. Plant breeding processes may in general be broken down into the following five key elements: (1) germplasm variation; (2) crossing; (3) generation of new genetic combinations; (4) screening and selection (identification and subsequent fixation of desired allelic combinations); and (5) line/cultivar development. Each of these has implications in relation to the time taken to breed a new cultivar; a brief introduction is given for each to highlight the obstacles that may be targeted in accelerating the breeding process. Specific techniques that provide a time advantage for these elements are then discussed. Some targets for enhancing the efficiency of plant breeding, e.g., the manipulation of meiotic recombination, have proven to be recalcitrant. However, other methods that create new genetic variation along with improvements in selection efficiency compensate to a large extent for this limitation. Progress in accelerating the plant breeding process continues by exploiting new emerging ideas in science and technology. © CAB International 2015.
Vu G.T.H.,Aberystwyth University |
Caligari P.D.S.,Sumatra Bioscience Pte Ltd |
Caligari P.D.S.,BioHybrids International Ltd |
Wilkinson M.J.,Aberystwyth University
BMC Genomics | Year: 2010
Background: The high-throughput anchoring of genetic markers into contigs is required for many ongoing physical mapping projects. Multidimentional BAC pooling strategies for PCR-based screening of large insert libraries is a widely used alternative to high density filter hybridisation of bacterial colonies. To date, concerns over reliability have led most if not all groups engaged in high throughput physical mapping projects to favour BAC DNA isolation prior to amplification by conventional PCR.Results: Here, we report the first combined use of Multiplex Tandem PCR (MT-PCR) and High Resolution Melt (HRM) analysis on bacterial stocks of BAC library superpools as a means of rapidly anchoring markers to BAC colonies and thereby to integrate genetic and physical maps. We exemplify the approach using a BAC library of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Super pools of twenty five 384-well plates and two-dimension matrix pools of the BAC library were prepared for marker screening. The entire procedure only requires around 3 h to anchor one marker.Conclusions: A pre-amplification step during MT-PCR allows high multiplexing and increases the sensitivity and reliability of subsequent HRM discrimination. This simple gel-free protocol is more reliable, faster and far less costly than conventional PCR screening. The option to screen in parallel 3 genetic markers in one MT-PCR-HRM reaction using templates from directly pooled bacterial stocks of BAC-containing bacteria further reduces time for anchoring markers in physical maps of species with large genomes. © 2010 Vu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Nasution O.,Sumatra Bioscience |
Sitorus A.C.,Sumatra Bioscience |
Nelson S.P.C.,Sumatra Bioscience |
Forster B.P.,BioHybrids International Ltd |
Caligari P.D.S.,BioHybrids International Ltd
Journal of Oil Palm Research | Year: 2013
Non-euploid seedlings occur naturally in many plant species including oil palm but at frequencies usually considered too low for practical purposes. A low cytometry method is described that overcomes the diiculty of exploiting such low frequency events and provides a practical plant breeding methodology to identify noneuploids/haploids within large sample sizes. In addition, the eiciency of detecting non-euploid seedlings can also be increased greatly by a pre-screen for abnormal phenotypes. Oil palm is relatively diicult to analyse via low cytometry as tissue disruption initiates secondary metabolite production which interferes with the analyte and data capture. The addition of dithiothreitol and polyvinylpyrrolidone during sample preparation, followed by cold incubation, prior to analysis overcomes these problems. The high-throughput method developed allows the analysis of 1000 samples per day per low cytometer. The number of haploids produced by this method rivals that of other haploid production systems and is currently the only known method of generating haploids in oil palm. Additionally, the method for oil palm is not season dependent and may be performed all year round. The method can be applied to other species and provides a practical means of harvesting naturally occurring non-euploid. The seedlings selected using this methodology can be grown, thus making the method applicable to a range of species and disciplines including evolutionary studies of speciation of polyploids, reproductive biology, embryology and the production of haploids and doubled haploids for genetic studies and plant breeding of oil palm.
Swanston J.S.,James Hutton Institute |
Middlefell-Williams J.E.,James Hutton Institute |
Forster B.P.,James Hutton Institute |
Forster B.P.,Biohybrids International Ltd |
Thomas W.T.B.,James Hutton Institute
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2011
A population of barley lines, derived by mutation in the hull-less variety, Penthouse, was included in a replicated trial, along with Penthouse and the hulled malting cultivar, Optic. Samples were assessed for a range of grain quality traits, then malted, with germination for either 4 or 5 days, prior to kilning. Most lines had grain β-glucan contents lower than that of Penthouse, but there was no significant correlation between grain and malt β-glucan content. Malt β-glucan levels were indicative of differences in cell wall breakdown between 4 and 5 days germination, but negative associations with distilling parameters Extract and Alcohol Yield, were not statistically significant. It was concluded that the lines differed in the rate and extent of cell wall breakdown and that grain shape may influence modification in distal parts of the grain. However, a malting regime, optimised to suit Optic may be less suited to discriminating between hullless lines of reasonable quality. © 2011 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.